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niversity of Chicago Library 



GIVEN BY 



Q TV 



^- -_^- ^_ 

Besides the main topic this book also treats of 
Subject No, On page Subject No. OH page 



Personal 



3335 3333 



3 3333 



'ex J-\ 

C i 




A Treatment cf the Doctrines of 

Conversion and Christian 

Experience 

By 
EDWARD N. CANTWELL, B.D. 




New York: EATON & MAINS 
Cincinnati: JENNINGS & PYE 







Copgiigbt 6p 
aton 

1903 



THIS BOOK is DEDICATED 

TO A 
METHODIST ANCESTRY 

THAT FOR 

FIVE GENERATIONS HAS ENJOYED THE POWEB 

AND 

UPHELD THE DOCTRINES 

OF 
PERSONAL SALVATION 



CONTENTS 



Page 

PREFACE 7 

I 
THE CHRISTIAN 15 

II 
PREPARATION FOR CONVERSION 29 

III 
HUMAN SIDE OF THE PREPARATION 32 

IV 
SPIRITUAL ENLIGHTENMENT 43 

V 
SPIRITUAL AWAKENING 52 

VI 
CONVICTION OF SIN 62 

VII 
THE INVITATION 78 

VIII 
THE HOUR OF DECISION 83 

IX 
REPENTANCE 92 



6 Contents 

X 

FAITH 102 

XI 
CHRISTIAN FAITH 116 

XII 
THE RIGHTEOUS QUALITY OF FAITH 125 

XIII 

FAITH AND THE DIVINE SIDE OF CONVER- 
SION 130 

XIV 
JUSTIFICATION 140 

XV 
REGENERATION 150 

XVI 
ADOPTION 169 

XVII 
CHRISTIAN FELLOWSHIP 176 

XVIII 
CHRISTIAN ASSURANCE 183 

XIX 
CHRISTIAN HOLINESS 195 

XX 
RESCUED FOR SERVICE 211 



PREFACE 

A COMPREHENSIVE grasp of truth and a 
strong and adequate style of expression 
are essential features of a helpful book, 
but the one great content that gives it life 
and inspiration is the personality of the 
writer, the Some one, who lives on every 
page, whose soul beats against the limita- 
tions of language as an eagle beats against 
the bars of his cage in vain search of a free 
pathway to the open hill country and the 
shining sun. For this reason every really 
great book except the Bible "seems to be a 
vain attempt to do the impossible." The 
writer of this book, therefore, will be 
greatly pleased if some of his readers find 
that he has suggested and attempted more 



8 Preface 

than he has been able to complete. Books 
treating of Christian experience are quite 
plentiful, but none of them satisfy any 
large portion of the Christian Church. 
There are two reasons for this : ( i ) With- 
out the direct inspiration of God a man 
cannot write a book greater than himself, 
nor can he give clear and living expression 
to any spiritual truth until it has become a 
vital part of his own life. No one, as yet, 
has been able to realize in his personal re- 
ligious life all of the facts of Christian 
experience expressed or implied in the 
Scriptures, nor can any one man know all 
the phases of experience .which obtain 
among the various members of the great 
Christian Brotherhood. All that one 
Christian can do is to put his own experi- 
ence in order and send it forth as a per- 
sonal message to his brethren. (2) But 
since salvation is a personal, living process 



Preface 9 

it cannot, for that very reason, be put into 
words. The scientist can describe every 
little detail of the growth of a plant, but he 
can tell nothing of the living power which 
makes the growth. The effects are seen, 
the cause remains a great mystery. Hence 
the weakness of all treatment of Christian 
experience. 

Conscious of these limitations, the writer 
still hopes that this book does give some- 
what adequate expression to a common 
type of Christian experience. He also 
hopes that by means of it some may be 
helped to a better understanding of the 
truth and of themselves, and that in- 
creased knowledge may lead to stronger 
and deeper spiritual life. To obtain a 
well-balanced view of Methodist teaching 
on this important subject there may be 
read in connection with this book four 
Methodist classics,, written by men of ma- 



10 Preface 

ture thought and experience, namely,- 
Love Enthroned, by Dr. Daniel Steele; 
Aspects of Christian Experience, by Bish- 
op S. M. Merrill ; Philosophy of Christian 
Experience, by Bishop Randolph S. Fos- 
ter; The New and Living Way, by Pro- 
fessor Milton S. Terry. 

Theological definitions are at present in 
some disfavor. The present writer be- 
lieves, however, that knowledge and belief 
precede experience and character; that 
definite thinking and exact knowledge are 
necessary to definite experience; that a 
vague, loose, indefinite style of thought 
and speech is degrading and immoral. 
The names of the events of Christian ex- 
perience are in common use, and yet very 
few have any clear idea of their meaning. 
Nor is this ignorance entirely confined to 
the laity. Very many writers and speakers 
use statements and make explanations that 



Preface 11 

indicate very great confusion or very great 
error. Figures of speech have been so 
abused that their use has added to the con- 
fusion and concealed the truth instead of 
revealing it. Some have gone so far as 
to build a whole system of doctrines on a 
metaphor. Things are not clearly seen 
across a landscape covered with fog; 
progress under such conditions is slow, 
uncertain, and dangerous. Believing that 
definitions will help to clear up the situa- 
tion, they have been freely used. A path- 
way through the forest may restrict free- 
dom and limit the view, yet it is an aid to 
most travelers who desire to arrive some- 
where. These definitions have proven so 
helpful to the writer in his own experience 
and have added so much to the value .of 
his preaching that he feels it both a duty 
and a pleasure to give them as large an 
audience as possible. The definitions are, 



12 Preface 

however, to be looked upon not as final 
statements of the whole truth, but as defi- 
nite measures of the light we now have, 
and, like the clear outline of the new 
moon, a prophecy of fuller light to come. 
This partial but clearly defined outline is 
more encouraging to the ordinary traveler 
than the greater but fragmentary light of 
the great nebula ; it is nearer by and more 
concentrated, and therefore gives greater 
promise of immediate helpfulness, even 
though it may not have such great possi- 
bilities. We will do the best we can with 
the light at hand while waiting for the 
nebula to organize. Indeed, it is to be 
hoped that some mighty spirit may soon 
move upon the great nebulous mass of 
much that passes for Christian thinking 
and reduce to order that formless void. 
The writer hastens to say that these defini- 
tions are not his own, but that wherever 



Preface 13 

they appear placed in quotation marks and 
not otherwise credited they are by Pro- 
fessor Olin A. Curtis, to whom is acknowl- 
edged a very great indebtedness for the 
outline of^conversion. But beyond this 
outline and the definitions this work does 



not pretend to give any of Dr. Curtis's 
views. 

The claim is not made that every con- 
version must exactly fit the plan here 
given, or even that many conversions will 
be 3,s clear and definite in every detail. 
The writer was converted when eleven 
years of age, and he is very sure that the 
repentance and faith exercised were far 
below the demands of this treatise. But 
as he grew older and obtained a clearer 
idea of his personal accountability, and a 
better conception of God, the repentance 
and faith took on a new and deeper mean- 
ing, and with every increase of knowledge 
2 



14 Preface 

and new apprehension of God there has 
come a new and better adjustment of his 
whole religious experience. Within the 
past year a study of the minor prophets 
has given a great and new content to his 
conception of God, and as a result repent- 
ance and faith and the whole range of 
experience have taken on a deeper mean- 
ing. The writer speaks of personal salva- 
tion as he now knows it. This personal 
element may account for the persistent 
and perhaps over urging of some of the 
points. Some readers may not need to 
trim the statements to their experience, 
while others may need to bring their ex- 
perience into line with the statements 
herein, even though in some cases they be 
overurged. 

Holland's Island, Md., 
January, 1903. 



personal g>aDratton 



CHAPTER I 
THE CHRISTIAN 

THE words "Christian" and "Chris- 
tianity" are used in so many senses, and 
so generally in a vague and indefinite 
way, that great confusion as to their real 
meaning has resulted. A consultation of 
encyclopedias and dictionaries only helps 
to increase the confusion. Some years 
ago a Christian weekly sent to a number 
of representative men and women the fol- 
lowing question: "What is it to be a 
Christian ?" Some thirty replies were re- 
ceived. Bishop Randolph S. Foster says 
that while this is a demand for a defini- 
tion, yet not one of the thirty responses is 
a definition, although some approximate 



16 Personal Salvation 

it, and not one is satisfactory. The con- 
fusion on this subject has been greatly in- 
creased by such books as The Christian, 
by Hall Caine, and Robert Elsmere, by 
Mrs. Ward, and by the rise of several 
societies of good people who are con- 
scientiously trying to practice the teach- 
ings of Christ but who have missed the 
vital center of the Christian religion. The 
words under discussion ought to have a 
precise and definite meaning, and it is 
our present task to find out what that 
meaning may be. If the fog on our 
horizon can be driven away we may be 
able to run a straight course with clear 
sailing. 

A man is not born a Christian, but he 
becomes one by making real in his own 
life the Christian religion. Hence it is 
evident that we must define Christianity 
before we can define the Christian. 

We have not touched the central fact of 
Christianity when we think of it as a new 
and better way of living, nor even when 



The Christian 17 

we regard it as the fullest and completest 
revelation of 'God. It is both of these, but 
only incidentally. These do not exhaust 
or even truly represent those parts of the 
New Testament upon which the most em- 
phasis is placed. We must go deeper for 
the real meaning of Christianity. The 
real truth and the vital message of the 
New Testament lie here: "Mankind is a 
racial brotherhood of moral persons. 
Christianity is a deed it is God in action 
to save this brotherhood of man; a deed 
of infinite sorrow and self-sacrifice on the 
part of God; a deed made absolutely nec- 
essary by the entrance of sin, which has 
entered the personal life of man and 
broken up his relation with the Father, 
and which has also entered man's social 
life and broken up God's original plan of 
brotherhood. The religion of Christianity 
is an actual rescue from sin of a personal 
moral brotherhood, at infinite cost in self- 
sacrifice on the part of God" With this 
adequate and comprehensive definition 



18 Personal Salvation 

of Christianity clearly before us we can 
suggest a definition for the term "Chris- 
tian" that will be sufficiently inclusive and 
exclusive. 

:\A Christian is a man whose religious 
life is marked by three definite character- 
istics : ( i ) A definite belief in the atone- 
ment as an act of rescue performed by 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, with a belief 
in the doctrines growing out of the atone- 
ment; (2) a definite act of faith by 
which the atonement in Christ is appro- 
priated as a personal rescue, and a definite 
experience of acceptance with God, in- 
cluding freedom from sin and birth into 
the family of God, with conscious knowl- 
edge of the same; (3) a definite course 
of conduct, entirely controlled and ruled 
by motives growing but of the definite 
belief and the definite experience. ^ 

THE DEFINITE BELIEF 

The entrance into the inner temple of 
Christianity is through the door of belief, 



The Christian 19 

and without this belief there can be no 
farther progress. There cannot be an act 
of faith and a definite experience without 
the necessary mental grasp of the truth. 
The rescue from sin is possible to none 
but believers. There are cerain things 
that a Christian believes that distinguish 
him from all other men. To a large part 
of his belief others may give assent, but 
he holds some central convictions which 
are the essential marks of Christianity. 
The Christian creed may be briefly 
summed up as follows : A definite belief 
in the Trinity, one God in three Persons, 
Creator, Preserver, and Ruler of all 
things. To this God man owes perfect 
love and obedience. God has revealed 
himself to man in nature, in conscience, 
in history, and in the Holy Scriptures. 
The most complete revelation of God is in 
the work and person of Jesus Christ, the 
Son of God and the Son of man, who was 
conceived by the Holy Ghost, was born of 
the Virgin Mary, lived a normal human 



20 Personal Salvation 

life, was crucified, dead, and buried; the 
third day he arose from the dead and as- 
cended into heaven. Of his life and teach- 
ing the four gospels give an adequate and 
accurate account. He is the Saviour of 
the human race, his Incarnation, Cruci- 
fixion, Resurrection, and Ascension being 
the great deeds by which he made atone- 
ment for sin, and rescued the human 
brotherhood. He will come again at the 
end of the world. The dead will all be 
raised and all men will be judged accord- 
ing to the deeds done in the body, and the 
good and the bad will be separated both 
as to place and condition. God has set 
his seal upon the Holy Scriptures as an 
accurate record of the preparation for 
and the accomplishment of the great deed 
of redemption. All of these things a man 
must believe in order to call his creed 
Christian. But the center of the whole is 
the belief in the deity of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, who by his infinite self-sacrifice 
made a real atonement for sin and accom- 



The Christian 21 

plished the deed of redemption. With this 
fundamental doctrine firmly held, the 
others fall in order about it. Nothing + 
short of this can be accepted as true 
Christian belief. On the way "to Damas- 
cus Paul was convinced of the fact that 
Jesus was the Son of God, and that, hav- 
ing been crucified, dead, and buried, he 
was risen from the dead and ascended 
into heaven. At that moment his be- 
lief, which had been Jewish, became 
Christian. 

It is one mission of the Holy Spirit to 
testify to the truth of these doctrines con- 
cerning the Christ. When a man is truly 
and earnestly hungering for God and is 
sincerely seeking a rescue from sin 
when such a man hears the doctrines of 
the Gospel presented the Holy Spirit in 
some way convinces that man of the 
truth of the redemption in Jesus Christ 
and the way to God through him. The 
evangelist is sent into the world to an- 
nounce the doctrines concerning the 



22 Personal Salvation 

Christ in order that the Holy Spirit may 
interpret them to such as seek to know 
God and the power of his redemption. 

A DEFINITE EXPERIENCE 

/ With his belief as a starting point, the 
man who becomes a Christian must act- 
ually pass through the process of rescue, 
must experience the power of the divinely 
provided redemption. The process of 
rescue is often called conversion, although 
the word "conversion" may only properly 
include a part of the mental process. "Ex- 
perience" is a word in common use in our 
own Church to designate the "internal 
states and feelings through which one has 
passed or is now passing" in the process 
of rescue from sin. An experience is an 
actual affair through which a man has 
passed. He knows it for himself; he 
does not need anyone to tell him about it. 
Now, the Christian has had a certain 
definite experience, certain states and 
feelings through which he has actually 



The Christian 23 

passed which have become real facts in 
his life. They make his religious life very 
different from the religious life of one 
who has not had this experience. The 
experience which makes a man a normal 
Christian includes: (i) A definite con- 
viction of sin as rebellion against the holy 
God, with a knowledge of the divine dis- 
pleasure and a fear of punishment from 
which he has no power to rescue himself; 
(2) a definite repentance, in which he 
loathes his sin and with a contrite heart 
turns away from it because it is displeas- 
ing to God; (3) a definite consciousness 
that in Jesus Christ God offers him a 
complete rescue, including pardon and 
restoration; (4) a definite act of faith by 
which he accepts Christ as a personal 
Saviour and gives his whole self to Christ, 
thus trusting himself to the divine rescue 
and resting upon it; (5) a definite wit- 
ness within that he is accepted of God 
and is now a member of God's family; 
(6) a definite consciousness of power 



24 Personal Salvation 

over sin, whether presented by outward 
temptation or inward suggestion. 

The man who has had this experience 
has passed through the process of rescue 
and is a Christian. Paul had all of these 
"internal states and feelings" and bore 
testimony to them. He could not have 
had them unless his belief had passed 
from Jewish to Christian. This experi- 
ence never loses its freshness and power. 
It is always present, always new. Nor is 
it necessarily all secured at once. A par- 
tial belief may give a partial experience, 
and as belief deepens the experience will 
become more definite. And the experi- 
ence always reacts upon the belief, making 
it clearer and stronger, until it practically 
becomes knowledge rather than mere be- 
lief. This will be discussed more at length 
in the chapter on "Christian Assurance." 

A DEFINITE COURSE OF LIFE 

To continue to be a Christian a man 
must bring his conduct into subjection to 



The Christian 25 

trie belief and the experience. Not every 
well-meant life is a Christian life. The 
doctrines of Christianity and the experi- 
ence of the personal rescue bring into the 
man's life certain great motives, and it is 
only as these motives rule in his life that 
he is a Christian. These motives gather 
up all lesser interests and compel the 
thought and affections to subject them- 
selves to the one great motive of love and 
loyalty to Jesus Christ. By reason of the 
rescue from sin the man has been restored 
to the right relation with the Father, and 
has also become a vital center in the new 
holy brotherhood which the Father is or- 
ganizing about Jesus Christ, the Elder 
Brother. Hence this definite life has a 
peculiar relation to God and to our fel- 
low-men. In relation to the Father it is a 
life of blessed communion, of the indwell- 
ing of the Holy Spirit, of loving service 
and obedience; a life of freedom, since 
he is no longer "under bondage," but is 
become a child of God. In relation to our 



26 Personal Salvation 

fellow-men it is a life of fellowship and 
love and service, its one great characteris- 
tic being a spirit of self-sacrifice in behalf 
of the brotherhood of man. "Hereby 
know we love because he laid down his 
life for us; and we ought to lay down our 
lives for the brethren." The Master has 
summed it all up in one sentence: "As 
Thou didst send me into the world, even 
so send I them into the world." A con- 
vert at Jerry McAuley's prayer meeting 
had the true spirit of Christianity when 
he said, "Jesus Christ died to give you a 
show. If you want to follow him get 
onto his cross and suffer, your own self, 
for some poor chap that is worse than you 



are." 



Thus a man becomes a Christian. God 
furnishes the facts for the belief, he pro- 
vides the opportunity and the power for 
the experience, he supplies the power for 
the life; by faith the Christian appropri- 
ates them and makes them his own. 

The Christian religion is a necessity in 



The Christian 27 

the development of manhood. The Chris- 
tian is not an artificial, morbid, un- 
healthy, cranky "saint." He is a sane, 
healthy, normal, developed man. The 
passage of the individual through the en- 
tire process of rescue is sometimes rapid 
and sometimes slow. The time required 
depends upon the man and the conditions 
surrounding him. But in every case the 
real process is wholesome, rational, vital, 
and free from artificial, factitious, mechan- 
ical elements. In so far as such elements 
are present the real process of rescue is 
hindered. The Christian religion is 
adapted to man and fits into his life with- 
out doing any violence to conscience or 
any other part of the moral nature. "It 
will meet a man at any stage of the moral 
process and start him on toward the 
goal." 

The following chapters will deal witfi 
the events of the Christian's experience, 
'describing the states and feelings and 
naming the stages through which he 



28 Personal Salvation 

passes. They will tell what happens to a 
man as he passes through the process of 
an actual rescue from sin and its results. 
It is not claimed that every case of con- 
version must exactly fit this outline, but 
the type is a real one, and the stages here 
described are actually present in every 
case even though the convert may not be 
conscious of them. 

There are no better names to be found 
for the stages of the spiritual life than 
those in common use, hence there has 
been no hesitation in using them. But it 
is hoped that this explanation will help to 
a clearer understanding of their meaning 
and free them from some objectionable 
ideas which have gathered about them. 
Every effort will be made to make the 
reader feel that we are talking about him 
rather than talking theology. 



Preparation for Conversion 29 



CHAPTER II 
PREPARATION FOR CONVERSION 

CONVERSION is the process of personal 
salvation; it is that "spiritual and moral 
change attending a change of attitude 
toward God; a change of heart; a 
change from the service of the world to 
the service of God; a change of the ruling 
disposition of the soul, involving a trans- 
formation of the outward life." There is a 
vast difference between a real conversion 
and a desire or determination to lead a 
new life. Conversion means the whole 
of the process of the rescue from sin. Its 
starting point is repentance; its goal is 
a mind, heart, and will entirely loyal to 
the Lord Jesus Christ, thus making the 
convert a member of the family of God, 
of the new brotherhood which God is or- 
ganizing about Christ, the Saviour. In 
addition to the above there is also in con- 



30 Personal Salvation 

version a new birth, an impartation of a 
divine Hie, which will in its completion 
make of the loyal person a holy person, 
thus bringing him to the second goal of 
the Christian life. 

The preparation for conversion is that 
combination of influences which, acting 
upon the person, brings him squarely up 
to the house of rescue, into which he may 
enter through the door of repentance. In 
this preparation, as in all of God's deal- 
ings with man, there are both human and 
divine elements. God uses human agen- 
cies and he also' works directly within the 
soul. The human agencies are the in- 
fluence of individuals, the influence of the 
Church, and the bearing of the man him- 
self. As a direct work of God there is the 
enlightenment of the spiritual under- 
standing, the awakening of a personal in- 
terest in salvation, the conviction of sin, 
and the gracious invitation to accept 
Christ and secure forgiveness and peace 
with God. All of these precede repentance 



Preparation for Conversion 31 

and are a preparation for it. They are not 
imaginary or theological pictures. They 
are real experiences in the life of every 
one who is under the influence of the 
Chrstian Church and the Gospel message. 
God does everything he can do to secure 
the rescue of every human being. 



32 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER III 

HUMAN SIDE OF THE PREPARATION 
I. THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUALS 

"No action, whether foul or fair, 

Is ever done but it leaves somewhere 

A record 

In the greater weakness or the greater strength 

Of all the acts which follow it." 

EVERY man has more or less influence 
in helping other men to meet God at the 
place of rescue or in keeping men away 
from God. A man's neighbors help in 
many ways to determine the time, the 
form, and the place of the test by which 
his final destiny is decided. Every indif- 
ferent person, everyone who has rejected 
the divine rescue, has a harmful influence 
upon those about him. Every person who 
has accepted God helps to bring others to 
the place of acceptance. By the righteous- 
ness of his life, by his fidelity in thought, 
word, and deed to the Christian spirit, by 



Human Side of the Preparation 33 

the moral power inherent in Christian 
character, by the word of testimony, by 
the feeling and expression of a profound 
personal interest in his neighbor, the 
Christian constantly influences others and 
helps God to secure their salvation. The 
Christian exerts this influence when he is 
entirely unconscious of it as well as when 
he is actively engaged in urging others to 
accept Christ. God can use our lives as 
well as our words to help others. Some- 
times the unconscious influence is most ef- 
fective. Many a person has been helped 
over a hard place on the road to God by a 
friendly word, a kind invitation, a broth- 
erly act, or even by a hearty handshake or 
a cheerful Christian smile. Also every 
dishonest or unfaithful act on the part of 
a Christian has a tendency to prevent oth- 
ers from seeing the Christ and accepting 
him. So we find that the personal bearing 
of individuals, and especially the bearing 
of Christians, has a great influence in the 
preparation for conversion. 



34 Personal Salvation - 

II. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH 

In bringing 1 men to the place of repent- 
ance the church as an organization exerts 
an influence which far exceeds the sum 
total of the influence of its individual 
members. There are certain great con- 
ditions of church worship which, if fully 
met, would result in constant conversions. 
When in the beauty of holiness God is 
worshiped in spirit and in truth, and the 
fellowship of brotherly love goes from 
fieart to heart, then the Holy Spirit is 
present in such power that every sinner 
within its influence will feel the shock and 
be brought to an immediate decision. 
This influence, secured by the presence of 
the Holy Spirit, is a power over the con- 
sciences of men which lays their hearts 
open before them and brings them face to 
face with God. The power is always 
present when the conditions are met: 
sincere, holy worship and brotherly love. 
Until then no amount of prayer for the 



Human Side of the Preparation 35 

power of the Holy Spirit can secure it, 
but prayer may be a large factor in secur- 
ing the proper conditions. The one hun- 
dred and twenty disciples in the upper 
room did not spend the ten days in be- 
seeching a coy spirit to move, but in learn- 
ing the spirit of Christ, in getting into 
loving relations with one another, in wor- 
shiping God "with one accord." When 
the power came each one received his por- 
tion. When a church meets the condi- 
tions it will receive a Pentecost not to 
talk about, but to use in the conversion of 
the world. When this power is present 
its influence cannot be resisted. Men will 
be pricked in their hearts and will ask 
what they must do to be saved. The chil- 
dren in the Sunday school will have their 
share of the power, and will carry it home 
with them to disturb the parents who are 
not churchgoers. This power will even 
follow a missionary offering halfway 
around the world and make it effective in 
securing the rescue of the heathen. 



36 Personal Salvation 

The church has not today, and never 
has had, a full measure of this power, this 
grip on .the consciences of men. Perhaps 
one reason why the church has so little 
power is because those who seek the 
power seek it for themselves rather than 
for the church as a unit. One reason 
surely lies in the spirit of wordliness and 
selfishness which sometimes pervades a 
church. Remember that this power is not 
identical with the special indwelling of 
'the Holy Spirit which is the privilege of 
each believer, nor yet with the peculiar 
manifestation of the Spirit given to those 
who have passed to the second goal, 
Christian holiness, although it is a bless- 
ing given by the same Spirit. "There are 
diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit." 
It is a little unnatural and mechanical to 
suppose that the one hundred and twenty 
were all in exactly the same stage of 
Christian experience, yet they all received 
the baptism of power because it took all of 
them to make the church and meet the 



Human Side of the Preparation 37 

conditions. The power we are speaking 
of is a power in the church secured by 
meeting the conditions of church service. 
This power may not exhaust the gift of 
Pentecost, yet it is one separate and dis- 
tinct result of the Pentecost. 

The church of the present time is con- 
scious of its weakness in this respect, and 
in some cases is attempting to supply the 
deficiency and secure the desired results 
by making activity and service a substi- 
tute for the power of the Holy Spirit. 
The institutional church does a good 
work, but its activity is a poor substitute 
for the power of the Holy Ghost and can- 
not secure the real work of rescue from 
sin. A well-equipped church with abun- 
dant activity may be very prosperous and 
very pleasing, but it must not forget that 
the real power in its service lies in the 
presence of the Holy Spirit. When a 
child is sick we do all we can to amuse 
and comfort him, but we do not imagine 
for a moment that by so doing we have 



38 Personal Salvation 

touched the disease. Keeping the child in 
a quiet and cheerful frame of mind may 
assist nature, but something else is needed 
to arrest the progress o>f death. So the 
helpful and elevating influences and ac- 
tivities of the institutional church may 
help to bring men under the influence of 
the Gospel, but the dreadful disease of 
sin is not touched until the Holy Spirit is 
present. There can be no substitute for 
the power of the Holy Spirit in bringing 
men to repentance. The Spirit will mani- 
fest his power in any church, however 
poor and humble, whenever the conditions 
are met. The church has a great influence 
in the preparation for conversion. 

III. PERSONAL BEARING OF THE SINNER 

Man is not able to rescue himself, yet 
he can determine to some extent the time 
of his conversion. Certain states of mind 
must always precede repentance. A cer- 
tain amount of spiritual knowledge must 
be present before there can be a definite 



Human Side of the Preparation 39 

conviction of sin, without which there 
cannot be true repentance. Now, a man 
may try to keep himself away from all 
spiritual influences. He cannot entirely 
escape the influence of individuals nor of 
a holy church, yet his individual bearing 
toward the truth will partly determine the 
time and place of his spiritual crises. It is 
true that he cannot at all escape the direct 
work of God in bringing him to the place 
of rescue, yet, since God works as much 
as possible through Human agencies, the 
bearing of the man himself will help 
to determine the time when God will 
consider it most opportune to bring 
a spiritual crisis upon him. The per- 
sonal attitude of the man toward sin 
and righteousness will also have much 
to do with the quality of his spiritual 
knowledge. 

It is a profound and important law of 
moral development that by doing right a 
man may bring himself to a state of moral 
unrest. The approval of conscience, if 



40 Personal Salvation 

faithfully sought, will finally become dis- 
approval, and, while there is a vast dif- 
ference between the ordinary condemna- 
tion of conscience and the conviction of 
sin, yet this peculiar disapproval is really 
the beginning of a conviction of sin and 
presents an opportunity for a new and 
better life. The explanation is this : By 
obeying conscience the moral faculties are 
quickened and the moral ideal mercilessly 
expands until finally the moral man conies 
to a place where he demands of himself 
a perfect moral life; perfect not only in 
fragmentary moral deeds, but perfect in 
a "personal bearing toward right as a 
total thing." It is impossible for the man 
to meet this constantly increasing demand 
of his moral nature, and unless he decides 
to give the whole thing up he speedily 
comes to the point where he is profoundly 
conscious of his need of help. The feel- 
ing that some help is necessary gives the 
ever-present Holy Spirit an opportunity 
to enlighten the man and bring clearly be- 



Human Side of the Preparation 41 

fore him the plan of rescue, which in- 
cludes forgiveness for all past sins and the 
impartation of such help as will enable 
him to meet the demand of his constantly 
growing ideal, thus keeping him free 
from future sin. The process of conver- 
sion does not change the moral process. 
There is the change of .attitude caused 
by the new relation to Christ and the 
necessary help is granted, otherwise 
the moral development continues as be- 
fore. In conversion the total man is 
gathered up and started on toward the 
last goal of a perfect manhood. So the 
bearing of the man himself is a very 
important factor in the preparation for 
conversion. 

But, while these human elements in the 
preparation are very potent, the ruling 
power is not in human hands. With or 
without the help of individuals, of the 
church, or of the man himself, God works 
with the man and at opportune times 
brings a test upon him, compelling him to 



42 Personal Salvation 

decide one way or the other. So we turn 
to the work of God, in this preparation 
for conversion, and find it complete and 
perfectly adapted to secure the desired 
result. 



Spiritual Enlightenment 43 



CHAPTER IV 
SPIRITUAL ENLIGHTENMENT 

THE possession of spiritual knowledge 
is a necessary preparation for conversion. 
A man cannot have a personal interest in 
salvation unless he knows something 
about it. There cannot be conviction of 
sin without knowledge of God. There 
cannot be a wise choice in which Christ is 
accepted unless there is sufficient knowl- 
edge to give a keen appreciation of the 
importance of the situation. This en- 
lightenment must amount to real spiritual 
discernment or it is not sufficient. This 
opening of the spiritual eyes and quicken- 
ing of the spiritual perceptions is secured 
by the ordinary working of conscience 
and by the direct work of the Holy Spirit. 

This is not the place for a discussion of 
conscience, nor even for a definition of it. 
It is, however, in a very true sense the 



44 Personal Salvation 

voice of God speaking in the human soul, 
teaching it righteousness and" leading it 
toward God. While it may not teach man 
what the right is, it always gives an im- 
pulse toward right action whenever the 
right is known, or approved by the moral 
judgment. By fidelity to conscience a 
man not only sharpens his moral percep- 
tions, and enlightens and develops his 
moral nature, but he also gives the Holy 
Spirit opportunity to impart knowledge 
and make spiritual impressions. 

The Holy Spirit is man's greatest 
teacher in spiritual things. If conscience 
does not tell what the right is the Holy 
Spirit can and does so teach us. In earli- 
est childhood the Holy Spirit begins this 
spiritual enlightenment, and he never 
leaves us until, by continued rejection and 
a settled course of sin, spiritual knowl- 
edge is made impossible. No man in any 
age, country, or condition has been with- 
out the influence of the Holy Spirit in his 
heart and life. We used to hear about the 



Spiritual Enlightenment 45 

"natural man" whose very virtues were 
sins, and who could not do anything good 
if he wanted to, because he had not the 
Holy Spirit. There never was such a 
man and never will be. He was a theo- 
logical fiction. Such a man would be very 
"unnatural;" the natural condition of 
man is that the Holy Spirit is always 
present with him, seeking opportunity to 
teach spiritual truth, to make spiritual 
impressions, to impart spiritual knowl- 
edge, to sharpen the spiritual perceptions, 
to open the eyes and prepare the heart, to 
help the whole man to see God and to in- 
fluence the whole man to accept God. 
"Man was not made to live alone, he was 
made to live under the moral law with 
help." God will not leave a man alone 
when he is in the greatest need of help, 
even though the greater need be occa- 
sioned by man's sin. God will not leave 
a man alone so long as help will be of any 
benefit to him. A foolish woman said that 

she would like to go to hell because there 
4 



46 Personal Salvation 

would be some one there that she could 
help. She was mistaken. If there was 
any help for them they would not be 
there. Let her consider Calvary and 
learn a little wisdom in spiritual things. 
Our God is not the kind of a God that will 
forsake a man when he is in need of help. 
Indeed, God will not forsake him even 
though he be past help. The final state of 
the wicked, with its "outer darkness" and 
"unquenchable fire" and its "weeping and 
gnashing of teeth," will be just as com- 
fortable as infinite love can make such a 
place. 

Because he usually works through the 
ordinary events of life the Holy Spirit is 
spoken of as "seeking opportunity." The 
Holy Spirit touches something the man 
already knows, lifts it up, gives it a new 
meaning, and shows it in new and more 
exalted relations. It is very evident that 
the great work of the Holy Spirit in en- 
lightenment is among those people to 
whom the Gospel is preached, since the 



Spiritual Enlightenment 47 

hearing of Christian truth gives the Holy 
Spirit so much better material to work 
with. Also, the Christian religion being 
God's method of rescue, the Holy Spirit 
is present with it in a very peculiar man- 
ner. The Holy Spirit is sent to show us 
the things of Christ, and the essential 
truths of Christianity cannot be perceived 
unless the Holy Spirit interpret them to 
our hearts. 

The Holy Spirit never gives a man up 
until by continued rejections and by a set- 
tled course of disobedience he makes it 
impossible for spiritual impressions to be 
received. Sin blunts and weakens and, if 
willfully persisted in, finally destroys the 
whole moral nature, making all spiritual 
knowledge and all spiritual action impos- 
sible. In such a case there is no help. 

A man can greatly help in the work of 
enlightenment by placing himself in the 
way of spiritual knowledge. By church 
attendance, by prayer, by Bible reading, 
by helping others, by serious meditation, 



48 Personal Salvation 

opportunity is given to the Holy Spirit to 
prepare the man for rescue. Every Bible 
verse committed to memory, every song 
or testimony held in the mind, is a maga- 
zine of explosives to which the Holy 
Spirit may at any moment apply a spark 
and shake the soul to its very foundations. 
By carelessness and frivolity, by sin and 
selfishness, the Holy Spirit is grieved and 
he may even depart for a season. 

The Holy Spirit does not always wait 
for opportunities. He sometimes forces 
the truth upon the heart and mind in 
quiet or in violent ways. If we will not 
hear the still small voice the earthquake 
or the whirlwind may compel attention. 

So the man and conscience and the 
Holy Spirit work together. This is beau- 
tifully illustrated by an incident quoted 
by Canon Farrar. A man well known for 
his good works tells this anecdote of his 
childhood : "When I was a little boy, in 
my fourth year, one fine day in spring my 
father led me by the hand to a distant part 



Spiritual Enlightenment 49 

of the farm, but soon sent me home alone. 
On the way I had to pass a little pond. A 
rhodora in full bloom, a rare flower which 
grew only in that locality, attracted my 
attention and drew me to the spot. I saw 
a little tortoise sunning himself in the 
shallow water at the foot of the flaming 
shrub. I lifted the stick I had in my hand 
to strike the harmless reptile; for, though 
I had never killed any creature, I had seen 
other boys do so, and I felt a disposition 
to follow their wicked example. But all 
at once something checked my little arm, 
and a voice within me said, clear and 
loud, 'It is wrong/ I held my uplifted 
stick in wonder at the new emotion, con- 
scious of an involuntary but inward check 
upon my actions, till the tortoise and the 
rhodora had passed from my sight. I 
hastened home and told the tale to my 
mother and asked her what it was that 
told me it was wrong. Taking me in her 
arms, she said, 'Some men call it con- 
science; but I prefer to call it the voice of 



SO Personal Salvation 

God. If you listen and obey it, then it 
will speak clearer and clearer, and always 
guide you right; but if you turn a deaf 
ear, or disobey, then it will fade out little 
by little and leave you in the dark and 
without a guide.' " The mother was 
right. It was not conscience, it was the 
Holy Spirit speaking directly to the child. 
Conscience was present and active, but 
the voice was the Holy Spirit embracing 
that opportunity to enlighten the child. 
The result was a quickened conscience 
and an enlightened moral nature. Just 
so God enlightens the heart and mind of 
the sinner, teaching him the truth about 
himself and about God, preparing him for 
the great work of personal salvation. 

The work of the Holy Spirit in impart- 
ing spiritual knowledge is not confined to 
the preparation for conversion. It con- 
tinues throughout the whole of the Chris- 
tian life; the new relation to Christ se- 
cured by the conversion giving the Holy 
Spirit a new and much better opportunity 



Spiritual Enlightenment 51 

to teach and train. At present we are only 
concerned with the enlightenment as a 
preparation for conversion. As we fol- 
low the work of preparation we will see 
its value. When the enlightenment has 
proceeded so far, and the time is propi- 
tious, the Holy Spirit awakens a personal 
interest in salvation. This condition of 
awakened interest gives opportunity for a 
new enlightenment in which finally a 
vision of God is flashed before the man, 
producing conviction of sin, which in turn 
is followed by a new enlightenment lead- 
ing up to a gracious invitation to accept 
Christ as a means of rescue. "He tfiat 
cometh to God must believe that he is, and 
that he is a rewarder of them that dili- 
gently seek him." 



52 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER V 
SPIRITUAL AWAKENING 

THE enlightenment of the spiritual un- 
derstanding is followed by a state of 
awakened interest in God and in personal 
salvation. This feeling of personal inter- 
est is produced partly by the presence of 
the spiritual knowledge and partly by a 
direct work of the Holy Spirit. The soul 
was made to enjoy communion with God, 
and spiritual knowledge arouses and stirs 
the dormant powers and the man begins 
to hunger after God and has a lively per- 
sonal interest in securing a proper rela- 
tion with him. This feeling of personal 
interest, aroused by a taste of spiritual 
knowledge, gives the Holy Spirit an 
opportunity to impart a larger measure 
of knowledge and also to increase and 
deepen the personal interest by quickening 
it with his own divine life, thus making it 



Spritual Awakening 53 

a real work of grace. God is bringing the 
man to the place of decision tinder the 
most favorable conditions. That he may 
have the best opportunity to come into the 
kingdom, God takes up the soul's first 
feeble movements to know itself, fills 
them with his own power, and creates in 
the man's heart a fervent desire for a res- 
cue from sin and for a right relation with 
God. The Holy Spirit, if not resisted, 
also imparts to the man such a spirit of 
teachableness and humility that he will 
keep himself under the divine teaching, so 
that the testing time, when it comes, finds 
the man thoroughly prepared. 

Thus the man begins to show an inter- 
est in spiritual things. He goes to church 
every Sunday and gives attention to the 
whole service. He reads his Bible and 
loves spiritual hymns. The way seems all 
clear and easy before him. His friends 
are encouraged. Boldly he starts out 
from the City of Destruction, and the 
Celestial City seems almost in sight. Just 



54 Personal Salvation 

before him, however, is the SlougH of 
Despond, and every step toward God 
brings him nearer to that sad and bitter 
experience from which there is no escape. 
His awakened condition is a real desire to 
know God, but when God meets that de- 
sire with a larger vision of himself, like 
Isaiah in the temple he falls on his face 
and cries, "Woe is me ! for I am undone; 
because I am a man of unclean lips, and I 
dwell in the midst of a people of unclean 
lips: for mine eyes have seen the King, 
the Lord of Hosts." 

A great mistake is often made in deal- 
ing with people in this awakened condi- 
tion. This aroused and increased interest 
is sometimes mistaken for conversion, and 
as a result of this mistake at the begin- 
ning the whole religious life is involved 
in confusion and perplexity. One reason 
why so many converts do not "hold out" 
is that they were never truly converted. 
In some way awakening was mistaken for 
conversion, and they were left in a peril- 



Spiritual Awakening 55 

ous condition. We can trust God in his 
grace and tender mercy to carefully watch 
over such misguided ones, but that will 
not relieve from responsibility the unwise 
or ignorant spiritual teachers who some- 
times become more interested in figures 
than in profound spiritual results. But 
the mistake is sometimes very innocently 
made. One of the great benefits of the 
"mourners' bench" is that those who come 
out from their seats and make a definite 
separation from their old selves are much 
less likely to make this mistake, and much 
more likely to "come through," than are 
those who hold up their hands, or sign a 
card, or even stand up for prayers. It 
cannot be emphasized too strongly that a 
desire or even a resolution to lead a new 
life is not conversion in the sense of a res- 
cue from sin. The desire and the resolu- 
tion are good and necessary, but they 
mark a stage in the preparation for the 
rescue. The resolution to live a new life 
will bring the soul face to face with God, 



56 Personal Salvation 

and if persisted in will lead the man to the 
rescue from sin. Paul did not make the 
mistake of thinking that he was in Rome 
when he came to the "Three Taverns," 
but he "thanked God and took courage," 
and so went on toward Rome. 

This mistake produces confusing and 
sometimes disastrous results. The seeker 
has been told, and told truly, that certain 
definite effects follow conversion. He 
does not find these results in his own ex- 
perience, and is very likely to think that 
the Christian experience he has heard 
about is purely imaginary. This miscon- 
ception may easily prevent any further 
work of the Spirit at that time, and on ac- 
count of the blunder that opportunity for 
rescue is lost. Other opportunities will 
come, but they do not excuse the blunder. 
Valuable time also is lost. 

Another grave error growing out of 
this mistake is not uncommon. Some are 
faithful to the resolution to lead a new 
life and are brought to a true conversion 



Spiritual Awakening 57 

later, in spite of the bewilderment grow- 
ing out of the mistake. Thinking that 
they had been converted previously, they 
call the true conversion the "second bless- 
ing" of entire sanctification, thus bringing 
confusion into their own experience and 
greater confusion into the doctrine of 
holiness. This treatise stoutly maintains 
the doctrine of Christian holiness as the 
second goal of the Christian life. By the 
very nature of the case, a man cannot at- 
tain the experience of Christian holiness 
until after he has passed through the ex- 
perience of conversion, by which he be- 
comes loyal to Jesus Christ. Nevertheless 
it is very evident that many who describe 
the experience of sanctification and com- 
pare it with the regenerate state are 
only describing conversion and com- 
paring it with the state of awakened in- 
terest, in which there is a desire and an 
attempt to live in right relations with 
God. For this reason this word of cau- 
tion is introduced. Parents, preachers, 



58 Personal Salvation 

teachers, and evangelists are exhorted to 
be careful of this point and not repeat the 
mistake. 

The first profound religious awakening 
generally occurs in the period of adoles- 
cence, between the years of ten and 
twenty. To children in Christian homes, 
with good home and church training, it 
may, and often does, come much earlier. 
But most frequently the first deep spirit- 
ual awakening occurs in the period of 
youth, at which time there is an enlarged 
and awakened interest in all the relations 
of life. At this time there is a rapid de- 
velopment of the moral nature. Some- 
times within this period the person comes 
to moral freedom and is conscious of his 
moral responsibility. The moral nature, 
as well as the social nature, seeks to find 
its bearings and to establish itself in right 
relations. To the youth with the moral 
powers developing within him comes the 
Holy Spirit, enlightening the mind, in- 
structing the moral judgment, gathering 



Spiritual Awakening 59 

up the scattered and feeble spiritual pow- 
ers, and centering them in a profound 
personal interest in God and personal sal- 
vation. This period of awakened interest 
presents to the church and to the parents 
their great opportunity. By far the 
greater majority of Christians were con- 
verted before they were twenty years of 
age. The parents, the pastor, the Sunday 
school teacher, should all give attention to 
this fact, and see that those under their 
care are tenderly cared for and wisely and 
carefully led to Christ, the blessed Lord 
and Saviour, immediately upon the first 
awakening of interest in religious things. 
The Christian teaching and training 
should begin in early childhood with the 
expectation of seeing a real conversion 
and a settled spiritual life before the age 
of manhood or womanhood. This awak- 
ened condition has been known to come to 
children not more than six years of age. 

Great wisdom is required in dealing 
with children in the period of awakened 



60 Personal Salvation 

religious interest. The sensitive tender- 
ness of the young heart is increased by the 
vague unrest of the youthful period and 
also by the influence of the Holy -Spirit 
gently ministering to the newly born spir- 
itual powers. The whole attention should 
be directed to Christ and centered upon 
him, and the will persuaded to accept and 
trust him. There should be no morbid 
self-inspection or self-consciousness. This 
is not the time for a discussion of total 
depravity and of the necessity for regen- 
eration. There should be no demand for 
a vivid experience or a dramatic conver- 
sion. It is true that the child is depraved, 
and that he cannot be educated into the 
kingdom. He must be born into the king- 
dom, but a natural, normal birth under 
the guidance of the Holy Spirit is not 
necessarily violent. Indeed, it is most 
likely to be quiet and healthy and to come 
"without observation." The real joy of 
being a child in the family depends alto- 
gether upon the vividness and strength of 



Spiritual Awakening 61 

the present filial spirit, and not at all upon 
the painfulness of the birth. We must 
not expect children to have such a con- 
viction and repentance as comes to old 
and hardened sinners. The young need 
to know not themselves, but Christ. He 
should be presented to them in that at- 
tractive and lovely personality which per- 
vades the four Gospels. If Christ is kept 
before them, and they are taught to love 
him and follow him and work for him, 
the Holy Spirit will gently and naturally 
work within their hearts the miracle of 
eternal life. 

But the time of youth is not the only 
time of awakening. At many other times 
in life the influence of the church and of 
individuals, the bearing of the man him- 
self, and the enlightenment by the Holy 
Spirit lead to an interested awakened con- 
dition which is to be followed by that 
great upheaval in the spiritual life, the 
conviction of sin as a thing against the 
holy God. 



62 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER VI 
CONVICTION OF SIN 

THE aim of Christian experience and 
training is to bring the man into personal 
relation with the holy and absolute God. 
This "personal relation" is an attitude of 
filial trust and love and obedience in 
which the whole man recognizes and ac- 
cepts God as his Father and is conscious 
of sonship and heirship and fellowship in 
God's holy family. Since the perfection 
of manhood lies thus in a personal rela- 
tion toward God, the man must be 
brought to a realization of the fact that 
his whole life and conduct, his thoughts, 
feelings, and actions, in their final account 
are to be judged by their relation to the 
holy God rather than by their relation to 
society, to civil law, to self-respect, or 
even to the standard set up by the moral 
ideal. Even conscience must at last ren- 



Conviction of Sin 63 

der an account to God. The deep pur- 
pose of the conscience is to teach man that 
God has rights in him and demands obe- 
dience, and that he will sometime call for 
a settlement. The true work of con- 
science is much deeper than to get the 
man to do right. The demand is that the 
man do right, not primarily for right's 
sake, but as an expression of his willing 
obedience toward God. The deepest pur- 
pose of life is not conduct, but harmony 
with the holy God. This profound sense 
of responsibility to God, and the con- 
sciousness that the life and conduct, the 
whole mind and heart and will, are not in 
the proper relation to him, is what we 
mean by the conviction of sin. Convic- 
tion of sin therefore implies (<i) a vision 
of God, and includes (2) a sense of sin as 
a thing opposed to God, and (3) a feeling 
of self-blame for the lack of harmony 
with God. 

I. The conviction of sin implies a 
vision of God. The aim of the enlighten- 



64 Personal Salvation 

ment was to bring to the man a true con- 
ception of God and to train his faculties 
so that he could understand the vision 
when it came. The conception of God is 
the very foundation of the whole spiritual 
structure. The man who builded his 
house upon a rock builded it upon a great 
revelation of God. It matters not how 
bad a man may be, he can be lifted out of 
the very mouth of the pit if he can get a 
vision of God. We cannot do anything 
for him until he does get it. The spirit of 
our times is against any great vision of 
God. The Old Testament idea of God is 
out of our feeling, and our vision of 
Christ stops with his person and virtues 
and does not reach the atonement. We 
cannot even get a clear vision of the cruci- 
fixion. The power of the Gospel is 
neither in its severity nor in its mercy, 
but in the two combined. The thought of 
God's holiness drives the sinner into 
deeper despair. Some very eminent re- 
ligious teachers seem to be in great fear 



Conviction of Sin 65 

that some one will get hold of the old- 
fashioned idea that God has absolute 
rights in man, and that God's authority 
and God's word are supreme and inexor- 
able. It will be a sad day for the Chris- 
tian Church if it should lose all the stern- 
ness and strenuousness of the Old Testa- 
ment out of its life and theology. It will 
have to travel a long way back before it 
can meet the Lord Jesus at Calvary and 
receive the Gospel message from his lips. 

The conception or vision of God may 
be very weak and still be strong enough 
to make the man feel his lack of harmony 
with God. Some kind of a revelation of 
God must precede every true conversion. 

2. The first element of conviction is a 
perception of what sin is. The man sees 
that he is in rebellion against God. He 
feels that he is wrong, not because he has 
violated his conscience or broken with the 
commonly accepted standard of right, but 
because he has offended God. He is in a 
desperate condition because there is a God 



66 Personal Salvation 

and because God has rights in him. God 
has made man, and given him a free 
moral nature, and must govern him in ac- 
cord with that nature, but God has rights 
in a man just as he has in a worm. When 
a man realizes that God has rights in him, 
and demands obedience and will punish 
disobedience, he is in deep despair, and no 
one but God can help him out. He holds 
himself responsible to God for his sins 
against his fellow-men. He may have to 
make restitution, but the restitution does 
not settle the matter, since the real sin is 
against God and restitution to the fellow- 
man still leaves God to be settled with. 
The restitution may be the means of 
bringing on the conviction of sin. When 
a man comes to himself, and gets at the 
real center of his own soul, he sees that 
the real responsibility for every act is to 
God and the final settlement must be made 
with him. This is the profound element 
in conviction. 

3. The second element of conviction is 



Conviction of Sin 67 

sdf-blame. The man realizes his per- 
sonal responsibility and blames himself, 
and himself only, for his sin. He sees 
that the sin is not the result of heredity, 
or environment, or temperament, or the 
influence of friends or enemies. It is the 
rebellion of his own will against God. 
There is small hope of any real change or 
reform in the life so long as the man tries 
to put the blame on some one else. There 
is great hope the moment the man frees 
himself from his surroundings and holds 
himself responsible. The vision of God, 
the sense of sin, and the feeling of self- 
blame all serve to put the man in a very 
wretched condition. God alone can help 
him, and God will do it if he can get any 
opportunity to do so. 

In this state of conviction and unrest 
the person is hard to deal with. In the 
awakened state everything seemed to be 
progressing finely. Now perhaps the man 
stays away from church. His heart is 
hard and unyielding. He sees his re- 



68 Personal Salvation 

bellion but will not submit. The moment 
his heart begins to soften he begins to 
pass into the next stage, repentance. Of 
course, the whole procession of conditions 
preceding and during conversion may, 
and often does, take place in a few mo- 
ments, or it may spread over several days, 
or even weeks and months. In any case 
the conditions and order of events here 
described are present and could be distin- 
guished if all the facts were known. 

The conviction of sin is a work of the 
Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit chooses 
the time when he will bring the soul to a 
realization of its opposition to God and 
then forces a decision. In choosing this 
time for conviction the Holy Spirit takes 
into account the conditions previously 
mentioned as preparations for conversion. 
The church and the individual have 
power to bring a man to conviction only 
as they have present with them the power 
of the Holy Spirit. When the church 
meets the conditions of true worship, as 



Conviction of Sin 69 

previously stated, then there is present in 
the church such power over the hearts and 
consciences of men that they are brought 
face to face with God and are convicted 
of sin. The Holy Spirit is always pleased 
to use the church and its members as a 
means of convincing the world of sin, and 
of righteousness, and of judgment when- 
ever, by obedience to the conditions of 
such usefulness, they will allow him to do 
so. A man can also bring the conviction 
upon himself. By his own actions and his 
attitude toward the truth he gives the 
Holy Spirit opportunity to lead him to 
God. A man may hasten the conviction 
by earnestly striving to do right. Every 
right action brings a man closer to God. 
Remembering what has been said about 
the vision of God as a basis for convic- 
tion, let us listen for a moment to Joseph 
Cook : "It is a fact of human nature that 
the total submission of the will to con- 
science brings into the soul immediately 
a sense of the divine approval and pres- 



70 Personal Salvation 

ence as personal. You turn upon the sky 
your unarranged telescope at random and 
you see nothing. Direct it properly, but 
fail to arrange the lenses, and everything 
visible through the tube is blurred. But 
arrange the lenses and bring the telescope 
exactly upon the star or upon the rising 
sun, and the instant there is perfect ac- 
cord between the line of the axis of the 
tube and the line of the ray from the star 
or the orb of day, that instant, but never 
before, the image of the star or sun starts 
up in the chamber of the instrument. Just 
so I claim it to be the fact of experience 
that whenever we submit utterly, affec- 
tionately, irreversibly to the best we know 
that is, to the innermost holiest of con- 
science -at that instant, and never before, 
there flashes through us, with quick, 
splendid, unexpected illumination, a 
Power not ourselves. You cannot have 
that inner witness until you have that ex- 
terior and interior conformity to con- 
science, but whoever has these will know 



Conviction of Sin 71 

by the inner light that God is with him in 
a sense utterly unknown before. An ut- 
terly holy choice brings with it a Presence 
we dare not name. So much in conscience 
is known to be fixed natural law." (Bos- 
ton Monday Lectures, "Conscience," p. 
139.) When by a holy choice man brings 
into his heart the presence of God, that 
presence demands a new choice with re- 
gard to itself. Hence, even though a 
man be perfectly true to conscience, yet 
when that conformity to conscience 
brings a vision of God the man will feel a 
loss that cannot be met until he makes a 
new choice, accepting God, and choosing 
right thereafter as an expression of har- 
mony with him. God is greater than con- 
science. The best that conscience can do 
is to expand the ideal until we come face 
to face with the holy God. When by a 
change of attitude he is chosen he still 
uses conscience to guide our steps and 
bring us nearer to himself. It is very 
probable that Paul came to conviction 



72 Personal Salvation 

through the activity of conscience. He 
started to keep the moral law, and kept it 
so well that he soon realized that right- 
eousness was not in conformity to a 
moral standard but was a disposition of 
the heart and will, so he had to call upon 
Christ to deliver him from the body of 
this death. Some men, when they come 
to a realization of the fact that they can- 
not be good without God's help, refuse to 
make the surrender and, giving up all at- 
tempts to secure "righteousness in the in- 
ward parts," they fall back upon a mere 
outward conformity to an external stand- 
ard. They are moral backsliders, and 
while they may be very respectable citi- 
zens they have not that righteousness 
which pertains to the kingdom of God. 
Such persons present the very hardest 
problem with which the church has to 
deal. 

But the Holy Spirit is not dependent 
upon the church or the individual. Very 
often he forces the conviction of sin upon 



Conviction of Sin 73 

a person without any apparent relation to 
the situation. Suddenly the man is 
brought to a conviction of his rebellion 
against the holy God and is in deep des- 
pair on account of his sins. The fervent 
prayer of a friend may influence the 
Spirit to bring conviction on a sinner. 
Every person in the world who conies to 
the age of responsibility is brought by 
the Holy Spirit to a sense of his need of 
an harmonious personal relation with 
God. 

The conviction of sin which has just 
been described is that of a full-grown and 
responsible person who has continued in 
rebellion against God. The conviction 
that comes in childhood or in early youth 
has the same elements, but they are not so 
pronounced. But even in children the 
sense of sin as against God and the per- 
sonal responsibility may be very vivid. 
Primarily the conviction of sin is the re- 
alization that the present life is not in 
proper relation and attitude toward God. 



74 Personal Salvation 

The situation can be very nicely illus- 
trated by the social relation. The child 
sometime in his development finds that as 
an individual he is not in the proper rela- 
tion to society. At first the self occupies 
the whole attention, but with the develop- 
ment of soul and body the youth finds 
himself in a new world and he must adapt 
himself to the new conditions. He sees 
that the perfect life, the life of freedom 
and content, is not that of an isolated in- 
dividual, but that of a member of society. 
He will fall in love, and marry and have 
a home of his own. He will probably 
make some amusing blunders and perhaps 
some troublesome mistakes in his efforts 
to adapt himself to the situation, but he is 
going in the right direction. This feeling 
of individual restlessness, this desire for 
companions and family, may very proper- 
ly be called the social conviction. If the 
youth surrenders himself in loving obedi- 
ence to the laws of social development, if 
he sacrifices self for society, he becomes 



Conviction of Sin 75 

naturally a happy member of the social 
organization. Without any great break 
with himself or with his former life he be- 
comes a member of the great brotherhood 
of man; he is socially righteous and has 
a proper relation to his surroundings. But 
if he sets up his own selfish will against 
the demand of the brotherhood, and re- 
fuses to adjust himself to the social situa- 
tion, he becomes an outcast and a crim- 
inal. He makes himself a social sinner 
and is socially lost. By and by another 
conviction of his inharmonious state will 
come to him, and very likely it will be a 
violent conviction. It ought to be violent. 
So with the religious conviction. In child- 
hood or youth, as the powers develop and 
the soul awakens, there comes a profound 
consciousness that the soul is not at rest, 
and that it must adapt itself to God and 
his demands. This was discussed more 
fully in the last chapter. Now, if the situ- 
ation is accepted, and an earnest, serious 
attempt is made to come into the proper 



76 Personal Salvation 

relation to God, the child will come nat- 
urally and easily into a state of conscious 
acceptance with God, and a life of trust 
and obedience will follow. The child 
needs religious training and religious ac- 
tivity. The Holy Spirit will attend to the 
regeneration and the depravity and all the 
rest. It is folly to expect the same violent 
feelings in a child that we have a right to 
expect in a hardened sinner. The savages 
and the heathen have recognized the re- 
ligious awakening and the religious 
nature of the young, and have sometimes 
met the situation with better religious 
training and care than has the Christian 
Church. "Remember now thy Creator in 
the days of thy youth" is profound wis- 
dom for all ages. 

The period of conviction is a time of 
hardened heart. The fight is on, and so 
long as it lasts the soul will not give in, 
will not surrender to God. will not submit 
at the point of rebellion. If the soul con- 
tinues rebellious the conviction weakens 



Conviction of Sin 77 

and finally disappears. A willful sin may 
cause it to leave all at once. Between the 
conviction and the repentance is the gra- 
cious invitation, to which we next give 

attention. 
6 



78 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER VII 
THE INVITATION 

GOD meets the despair and self-blame 
of conviction with an offer of pardon and 
a gracious invitation to accept Christ and 
become a member of God's family. When 
it is remembered that conviction implies 
a vision of the great and holy God, and a 
realization that sin is a personal affront 
to him, it will be easily seen that the sin- 
ner's case is entirely hopeless unless God 
comes to him with an offer of pardon. 
In such a situation a great revolution is 
produced in the sinner's condition when 
he realizes that God has come. The case 
is no longer hopeless, for, since God is 
gracious, if the sinner will do his part a 
complete restoration is possible. The 
great fundamental law of reconciliation is 
that the innocent party must make the 
first sacrifice and first move toward a set- 



The Invitation 79 

tiement. The case is hopeless, so far as 
any real reconciliation is concerned, until 
the offended one makes known in some 
way his willingness to forgive and pro- 
vides opportunity for a restoration to 
peace and fellowship. The returning 
prodigal would not have fallen on his fa- 
ther's neck and poured out his soul in a 
plea for forgiveness and love if his father 
had met him with a cold, unbending dig- 
nity and formally assigned him to a place 
in the household. The father must run to 
meet him and pour out his heart before 
the returning son could have a right spirit 
renewed within him and have the joy of 
his sonship restored. The father must be 
a father before the son can be a son. In 
the life and death of his only begotten 
Son God has made the sacrifice and has 
come to meet the sinner with an offer of 
pardon and restoration. In this particu- 
lar the atonement is a moral influence; but 
this provision for reconciliation is not the 
whole of the atonement, nor does it touch 



80 Personal Salvation 

the profoundest depth of the human ob- 
stacle to forgiveness. 

This realization that God is gracious 
and will forgive enlarges the sinner's con- 
ception of God and thus increases the self- 
blame. The conception of God's holiness 
and righteousness and justice produces a 
powerful sense of despair and ill desert 
from which there is no escape. When the 
conception is enlarged to a vision of God's 
love as expressed in Christ the sinner 
feels that God is inviting him to return 
and hope arises. He had felt that God 
could never forgive him, but now that 
God has come with such tenderness and 
mercy the sinner is profoundly stirred. 
The knowledge of God's love increases 
the sorrow and self-blame, but his grief 
has become hopeful even as it grew more 
bitter. The man knows that it will come 
out right if he will do his part. Thus the 
Holy Spirit lovingly helps the man on. 

The awakened and growing religious 
interest of the child or youth is met with 



The Invitation 81 

the same tender invitation to come to God 
and grow up into a life of conscious ac- 
ceptance with him. In presenting the in- 
vitation the Holy Spirit generally uses 
human means and occasions, but the sin- 
ner cannot feel the force of the words of 
the invitation until the Holy Spirit so in- 
terprets them to him that he really grasps 
the idea that God is calling him. 

With the invitation and offer of par- 
don the preparation is complete. God has 
brought the person squarely up to the 
place of rescue and thoroughly prepared 
him for the decision. Man has not 
stumbled upon the place b)^ accident or in 
ignorance. God has done all he can do 
and not destroy the man's freedom. God 
cannot do any more for him in another 
life or another probation. God has emp- 
tied himself, has done his best work. He 
cannot do so well in another probation, 
even if he decided to give one. God has 
brought to bear upon him the influence of 
individuals, of the church, and of his own 



82 Personal Salvation 

conscience. The Holy Spirit has enlight- 
ened him and given him an interest in 
personal salvation. God has revealed his 
own nature and holiness to him, has 
shown him the nature of his sin and its 
consequences, and brought him to see that 
he is personally responsible for the sad 
condition. There is nothing in the situa- 
tion for which he does not blame himself. 
He sees that he is not held accountable for 
ignorance, or depravity, but only for his 
own willful disobedience. God invites 
him to come and find rest and peace, in- 
vites him with all the force of the divine 
love as exhibited on the cross. The great 
stream of rescue is flowing at his feet. 
Will he plunge in and be made whole? 
The man must decide. He can harden his 
heart, and turn away, or he can open his 
heart to receive all that God has for him. 
The instant that the heart begins to soften 
and melt the conversion is begun. Man 
meets God's invitation by a repentance 
that will speedily pass into faith. 



The Hour of Decision 83 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE HOUR OF DECISION 

WE have carefully traced the history of 
the man as he is prepared for the rescue 
from sin, and noticed the states and feel- 
ings through which he has passed. In the 
work of preparation the man has been 
largely passive. The decisions of his own 
will have had some influence in the prepa- 
ration, but the great work has been 
wrought by powers and influences outside 
of the man himself. But now we have 
come to the place where the man must de- 
cide. God cannot carry him any farther 
in the way of rescue unless the man 
definitely decides to travel that road. Be- 
fore passing to the next step in the plan 
of rescue it will be profitable to discuss 
briefly the conditions which surround a 
man in the hour of decision. In that hour 
the man is perfectly free to choose any 



84 Personal Salvation 

one of the motives that appeal to him. 
The man holds himself responsible for his 
choice, the Bible holds him responsible 
and society holds him responsible, so he 
must be free to choose as he will. 

No man ever went down to eternal 
death on general principles. Man's des- 
tiny is not decided by a comparison of the 



good and the bad in his life. God does 
not say of a man, as we so often say, "On 
the whole, there was more good than evil 
in his life." The man is lost because at a 
certain definite time in his life he com- 
mitted certain definite acts of sin which 
he knew to be sin, and which he could 
have avoided if he had wanted to keep 
from doing them. The man himself knew 
that he was doing the forbidden thing and 
he did it on purpose. He does not blame 
anyone but himself, nor put the responsi- 
bility in any way upon anyone else. With 
his eyes wide open and his faculties alert 
he said, "This is the thing I choose; this 
is the thing I will be." Character may be 



The Hour of Decision 85 

of slow growth. It may be determined, 
to some extent at least, by circumstances. 
But the crises that fix the soul's destiny 
are determined alone by the man and his 
God. At the moment when the choice 
must be made there is nothing in all the 
universe, so far as that man is concerned, 
except himself and God. He must obey 
or disobey. He stands in the presence of 
two or more possible choices. The holy 
God approves one of them and disap- 
proves the rest, and the man knows it. 
Nothing can by any possible means in- 
fluence the decision except the man him- 
self. Heredity, depravity, environment, 
education, habit, former choices, charac- 
ter, not one of these can have the least 
influence in the matter until after the 
choice is made. They may determine the 
form of the crises; they can do nothing 
more. For the time the man separates 
himself from all external things, from all 
his possessions and accumulations and 
acquirements. None of the things that 



86 Personal Salvation 

appeal to the man and tempt him are a 
part of his real personality, and they can- 
not have any power over him until he ac- 
cepts them and identifies himself with 
them. Thus it is that every man, regard- 
less of conditions and circumstances, has 
the same chance, and every man has a fair 
chance, and every man has the best 
chance. He has the only chance there is. 
That is a chance to stand, not between the 
evil and the good, but between the evil 
and God, and choose one or the other. 
The habits, the inherited appetites, the 
fostered passions, the total suction of the 
awful whirlpool of sin, may hold him 
with a power that he cannot of himself 
resist, but when the great test comes he 
can rid himself of the whole wicked 
crowd by throwing himself into the arms 
of the loving God and crying, "O God, I 
choose thee; help me or I perish !" If the 
man chooses God and stands by his choice 
God is responsible for his being good. 
When the man chooses God, God sends 



The Hour of Decision 87 

into his soul such an infusion of his own 
life and power as will renew and trans- 
form it and give him power over every 
form of sin. The man identifies himself 
with God. God identifies himself with 
that man. "In all these things we are 
more than conquerors through him that 
loved us. For I am persuaded, that 
neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor 
principalities, nor powers, nor things 
present, nor things to come, nor height, 
nor depth, nor any other creature, shall 
be able to separate us from the love of 
God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord." 

If the man chooses the sin he does more 
than reject God. He identifies himself 
with the evil and puts himself in line with 
his depraved nature and gives himself 
willingly to the whole crowd of evil forces 
that drag him down to eternal death. He 
rejects God and chooses them. He is just 
as responsible for what they do with him 
as if he had made them all himself. 

A'fter the choice is made the previous 



88 Personal Salvation 

choices and education and environment 
become factors of the situation. The kind 
of man he was previous to the choice will 
influence his equipment for future work. 
Take, for example, two young men of 
equal age. One of them has been brought 
up in a Christian home with Christian 
training; he has habits of prayer and 
Bible reading and church attendance; he 
is acquainted with Christian people and is 
familiar with Christian work. The other 
young man is a child of the slums, with 
habits of stealing and swearing and 
drinking and lewdness; he knows noth- 
ing of Christian thought and work. The 
training of the first young man will not 
make it easier for him to choose God; the 
training of the second will not make it 
harder. In that respect neither has the 
advantage; they are equal. But if the 
first young man accepts God, see what an 
equipment he has for Christian work. He 
is well prepared to enter into immecliate 
and useful Christian service. If He ac- 



The Hour of Decision 89 

cepts the sin he will have to fight all his 
decent habits. If the second young man 
accepts God all his former life and habits 
must be overcome, and until they are 
overcome he cannot do much Christian 
work. If he decides with the sin he finds 
himself well prepared to enter into all 
forms of sin and wickedness. But in the 
hour of decision neither has the advant- 
age. A man is lost because on a certain 
definite occasion he rejected God and de- 
cided to do a certain definite sinful thing. 
There will be no vagueness about it. The 
man and all his friends will understand it. 
No one will wonder why he is in such a 
sad plight. No one will complain of the 
harshness of divine justice. 

In a Christian land every man must be 
brought squarely up to the place where he 
must accept or refuse the divine rescue 
provided by the Lord Jesus Christ, and no 
man is lost until he completely and finally 
rejects God and the rescue. It is true that 
a man is not saved until he has accepted 



90 Personal Salvation 

Christ. It is equally true that a man is 
not lost until he rejects Christ. His des- 
tiny is an open question until he decides 
it. For men in heathen lands and for all 
men who do not come under the influence 
of the Gospel the spirit of the test is ex- 
actly the same, although it differs greatly 
in form. There is a real test, and every 
man has a chance to decide what he will 
be. God will take care of all the rest 
when once the decision is finally made. 

In bringing this crisis upon a man God 
selects a time when the man is best pre- 
pared to accept him. God knows how 
many tests are necessary to thoroughly 
try the man, and he prepares the man for 
these tests and does all he can to make it 
easy for him to accept God and hard for 
him to accept sin. God brings to bear 
upon the man all the pressure he can 
stand and remain free. No man will be 
lost if anything can save him. 

In our study of personal salvation we 
have come to the hour of decision. The 



The Hour of Decision 91 

man has been brought face to face with 
God and face to face with his sin. God 
stands with outstretched arms and loving 
voice inviting the man to accept him. 
The man must decide. He must do some- 
thing with God's invitation. In repent- 
ance the man prepares himself for the 
great decision which completes the act of 
faith and unites the man with God. Re- 
pentance is really the beginning of that 
decision. We cannot make too emphatic 
the fact that the decision is not alone a 
choice of right. It is a choice of the per- 
sonal God, and of right as an expression 
of harmony with him. 



92 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER IX 
REPENTANCE 

IN conversion, as in the preparation, 
there is a human and a divine element. 
God and man work together to secure the 
rescue from sin. When God has revealed 
himself to the sinner, and has convinced 
him of sin and has invited him to forsake 
his sin and to come back to God, God has 
done all that he can do until the man does 
something. The human elements of con- 
version are repentance and faith. The 
divine elements are justification, regener- 
ation, and adoption into God's' family. 
This outline of conversion is valuable for 
clearness and as an aid to Bible study. 
While every conversion may not conform 
to the plan in every respect, the lack of 
the conformity lies in the lack of definite- 
ness in the conversion rather than in the 
rigidness of the outline. In each conver- 



Repentance 93 

sion there are personal elements which 
give emphasis to some particular phase of 
experience. But even with these personal 
elements present the central facts of the 
rescue are the same. The outline is not 
mechanical or factitious. It is not a 
superimposed theory, but an analysis of 
the facts which really occur in every res- 
cue from sin. As the time required for 
the completion of conversion depends 
upon the man and his surroundings, it 
naturally results that some conversions 
are hard to analyze and the man himself 
may not know just where he stands. The 
important thing for a man to know is 
whether or not at this present moment 
he loves God, and hates sin, and finds joy 
in God's house and among God's people. 

Conviction is the self-blame which re- 
sults from a realization of what God is 
and what his rights are in us. 

This self-blame is tenderly met by the 
Holy Spirit in invitation. 

Conviction and invitation form the 



94 Personal Salvation 

basis for repentance, which is a personal 
sorrow for sin as a thing against God. 
Closely analyzed, repentance has two 
features : (i) Contrition, a broken heart; 
and (2) aversion to sin, a hatred of all 
sin as ungodly. 

i. The first movement in repentance is 
contrition, or the softening of the hard, 
stubborn, rebellious heart. God's love 
and tenderness expressed in the invitation 
softens the hard heart and puts the man 
in a state where God can do more for 
him. Behind this softening of the heart 
there is an act of the will. The man must 
submit to God. Even though the ability 
to repent be a gift of the Holy Spirit the 
man is still responsible. If God gives the 
man ability to repent he must use that 
ability. Whatever is necessary for God 
to do he does. Man has the power to sub- 
mit to God and soften his heart. It mat- 
ters not how he got the power. The 
question is, Will he use it? The way to 
submit is to submit. God cannot do any- 



Repentance 95 

thing for the man until the man softens 
his heart, is in a teachable and humble 
state, and will allow the Spirit to lead him 
into a complete committal of himself to 
God. The change of attitude in a peni- 
tent is exactly identical with a change that 
can readily be observed in a rebellious 
child. At first the child is stubborn and 
willful, and refuses to submit, but if he is 
carefully dealt with he will soon give up, 
and the broken-hearted, contrite state 
which follows presents to the parents a 
splendid opportunity to secure loving obe- 
dience and to bind the child more closely 
to themselves. Repentance begins with a 
broken and a contrite heart in which there 
is a deep sorrow for sin as rebellion 
against God. 

2. In addition to the personal sorrow 
for sin there is also aversion toward the 
personal sins and toward all sin in gen- 
eral. The rnan begins to loathe that 
which he once loved. This change of 
feeling toward sin is not simply aversion 



96 Personal Salvation 

to sin because of its inherent meanness 
and vileness and ugliness, but a loathing 
of sin because it is a personal affront to 
God. The meanest thing about sin is its 
ungodliness. This aversion toward sin 
is a fundamental part of all true repent- 
ance. The man who has the right spirit 
never boasts of his past sins. He does not 
like to talk about them. The remember- 
ance of them is grievous unto him. He 
loathes and hates his whole sinful life. 
He is sad whenever he thinks of it. 
There is something very shallow about 
the man who boasts that when he was a 
sinner he was a very great sinner indeed. 
The repentance which is a "godly sorrow, 
working repentance unto salvation," car- 
ries with it a keen aversion to sin,. and a 
feeling of great sadness whenever the 
former sins come to mind. 

The Christian never loses the repentant 
spirit. The contrite heart and the aver- 
sion are always with him. His growth in 
grace and his acquirement of holiness are 



Repentance 97 

dependent upon a continued attitude of 
personal sorrow on account of sin. Re- 
pentance is the foundation of all our in- 
tercourse with God. 

In true repentance the sin is considered 
simply in its relation to God. Hence the 
necessity for a vision of God and a con- 
viction of sin as a preparation for repent- 
ance. The man is not ready to decide 
until he has these. Without them he can- 
not do anything with himself in the way 
of rescue from sin. Without the true re- 
pentance God cannot do anything with 
him. God's aim is not simply to make 
men comfortable. It is much deeper than 
that. God is trying to get men to be 
right, even though for a while he must 
make them uncomfortable. Unless great 
care is taken we are very likely to get a 
false situation and a false repentance. A 
man may be all broken up for fear he will 
be found out, or he may dread the effects 
of his sin. In many ways he may get a 
false situation. Repentance is not fear of 



98 Personal Salvation 

detection or of punishment; it is not 
wounded self-love nor stricken pride; it 
is not vexation and annoyance with our- 
selves that we have been so weak; it is 
not chagrin nor mortification, not self- 
reproach nor a hurt to our self-respect; 
it is not a fit of low spirits and self-resent- 
ment because we have done wrong; it is 
not the condemnation of conscience. All 
of these may make a man very uncomfort- 
able, but they are not repentance. The 
penitent forgets all these, forgets himself, 
forgets his liability to punishment, and 
considers only that he has offended God. 
It was not until the Lord turned and 
looked upon Peter that Peter went out 
and wept bitterly. "It is God looking into 
the sinner's face that has introduced a 
Christian element into the human sorrow 
for sin. And Paul, in making the Chris- 
tian vocabulary, had to coin a word which 
was strange to all the philosophies of the 
world then, and is so still, when he joined 
the conceptions of God and sorrow into 



Repentance 99 

one and told us of the godly sorrow which 
had the marvelous virtue of working a 
repentance not to be repented of. And it 
is this new and sacred sorrow which 
comes to sinful men as often as the Lord 
turns and looks upon their life; it is this 
which adds the penitential incense of true 
penitence to the sacrifice of a broken and 
contrite heart. That was a great distinc- 
tion which Luke brings out in the prodi- 
gal's life between coming to himself and 
coming to his father. So we are always 
coming to ourselves. We are always find- 
ing out, like the prodigal, what miserable 
bargains we have made. But it is only 
when we come to our Father that we can 
get them undone and the real debt dis- 
charged" (Henry Drummond, The Ideal 
Life) . 

Sometimes a disturbed sinner is petted 
and brought into the church without any 
real Christian experience. This is a great 
mistake. It is not our place to comfort a 
man in sin. We can point him to Christ, 



100 Personal Salvation 

and try to get him to see God and hear 
the tender voice. It may be that the 
glimpse of God will plunge him a hun- 
dredfold deeper in distress. If so, we 
have done the best thing for him. While 
repentance is a deep sorrow it is also 
hopeful. The stricken soul begins to see 
a way out, the light begins to shine in the 
darkness. All through the stage of re- 
pentance the enlightenment and convic- 
tion and invitation of the Holy Spirit are 
going on. While the man is repenting 
the Spirit is preparing him for the next 
step, which is the real crisis in the rescue. 
As the sorrow deepens the Saviour ap- 
pears with a thousand forms of beauty, 
full of love and mercy. Each look at the 
Saviour may plunge the man in deeper 
distress, but each deeper plunge brings 
with it a greater hope. There is a way 
out. A little faith and he is on solid 
ground again clasped in the Saviour's 
arms. 

The penitent sits in a station but takes 



Repentance 101 

no train. He loathes his present situa- 
tion and has made up his mind to go 
somewhere. Faith will soon pick up the 
whole man and carry him out and unite 
him to God. 



102 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER X 
FAITH 

THE crisis of the experience of rescue 
from sin is the act of faith by which the 
sinful man accepts the Lord Jesus Christ, 
personally appropriates Christ's work in 
atonement, and joins himself to Christ in 
a declaration of loyalty and allegiance. In 
the hour of decision the man is put in a 
situation where he must reject or accept 
God. In the act of faith the man takes 
up his total self and carries it over and 
gives it to God. Since faith is the means 
by which the rescue from sin is personally 
appropriated, and also the condition of 
continued harmony with God and of all 
growth and progress in the Christian life, 
there is need for clear and careful treat- 
ment. How often a repentant sinner is 
advised thus: "Believe that Christ is 



Faith 103 

able to save you and you are saved;" or, 
"Just believe you are saved and you are 
saved." If the sinner did not believe that 
Christ was able to save him, and had died 
to save him, he would not be there seek- 
ing salvation. A man is always, by the 
very nature of the case, a believer before 
he is a seeker. Neither can a man believe 
he is saved until he is saved. He is not 
saved until he accepts Christ by faith, and. 
when he has done that he will know it, for 
it is something he has done himself. It is 
a decision, a choice, of his own will. The 
sinner goes to the altar not to receive 
something, but to do something; that is, 
to surrender and totally abandon himself 
to God. When he has done this he will 
receive pardon and forgiveness. 

Religious faith is a great moral grapple 
with a moral ideal, in which the man com- 
mits himself in loving self-surrender and 

trust to that ideal and makes his whole 

\ 

life conform to its demands. The charac- 
ter of the faith is determined by the char- 



104 Personal Salvation 

acter of the moral ideal. The higher the 
ideal the more perfect and definite the 
faith and the resultant life. In order to 
secure a clear understanding of faith each 
phase of religious faith will be briefly dis- 
cussed, with definitions and other quota- 
tions from the notes of Dr. Curtis's lec- 
tures. The Christian Church has within 
its membership and among its adherents 
a large number whose faith, while it is 
truly religious, is not actually Christian, 
even though largely colored by Chris- 
tian teaching. For this reason we are 
giving these phases of faith as clear a 
treatment as possible. 

I. RELIGIOUS FAITH 

"On the merely religious plane faith is 
a bearing of trust, by which a man ex- 
presses his belief in some moral ideal, his 
duty toward that ideal, his regard for that 
ideal, and a venture of the will in the 
name of that ideal." 

On the very lowest plane faith is an act 



Faith 105 

of the total man. It is the most whole- 
some thing a man ever does. Repentance 
is the bridge that separates morality from 
religion. Faith is the actual occupancy of 
the land on the side of the river to which 
repentance leads. In the discussion of the 
preparation for conversion we found that 
if a man was entirely true to his ideal his 
very faithfulness would cause a state of 
unrest and despair, because his moral 
ideal expanded faster than his ability to 
live up to it. This peculiar sorrow is a 
"glimmer of that righteous sorrow which 
in Christian doctrine is called repent- 
ance." Now, if, in spite of his despair, the 
man holds himself true to his moral ideal 
"the initial bearing of repentance is fol- 
lowed by a bearing of confidence that his 
intention, his love of the right for its own 
sake, is the main thing, after all, and 
must, somewhere, somehow, be the final 
test of destiny. This confidence is not a 
result of the mechanical or natural pro- 
cess of the moral life, but is a creation of 



106 Personal Salvation 

the Holy Spirit as he meets with grace 
the man's despair. Just as we had an 
initial or pretypical repentance, so now we 
find a pretypical faith. This faith sub- 
stitutes a personal attitude toward right- 
eousness for the perfect moral life, which 
was found to be impossible. The man 
dares to believe that what he means is of 
more ultimate worth than what he can ac- 
complish now under his ideal. This sub- 
stitution of spirit for letter does not 
weaken his regard for the moral law, but 
strengthens it. Never before did he so 
intensely try to live a perfect life. The 
secret of this effort, continued and in- 
creased, is a new love -for his moral ideal, 
and a new hope that none of his struggle 
can be wasted." 

Thus faith is the center of all religion, 
even the lowest. This faith which is de- 
fined as "merely religious" is the faith of 
the pantheist, and of those who do. not 
know a personal God, but who do believe 
in some power higher than themselves, 



Faith 107 

which makes for righteousness. A man 
can have such an ideal and such a re- 
ligious faith anywhere in the world, re- 
gardless of his environment. In a Chris- 
tian land a man with such a faith may 
practice some Christian virtues, but they 
form no part of his religion and are not 
related to his religious ideal. Such a faith 
may be very earnest and work great sacri- 
fices; it may have a settled purpose of 
righteousness and be very strenuous and 
noble, but it has no peace and joy, no par- 
don, no knowledge of God, no comfort in 
sorrow, no loving and sympathetic Sav- 
iour. No man in a Christian land ought 
to be satisfied with such a faith. Let us 
leave such a faith to the heathen, and, see- 
ing that we have a great High Priest that 
is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son 
of God, a High Priest that is touched 
with a feeling of our infirmities, let us 
come boldly unto the throne of grace 
that we may obtain mercy, and find grace 
to help in time of need. 



108 Personal Salvation 

II. FAITH IN A PERSONAL GOD 

"On the theistic plane faith has the 
same elements of belief, duty, regard, and 
venture, but the moral ideal is either the 
personal God, or the moral law as an ex- 
pression of the nature of the personal 
God." 

This is a much higher faith than tfie 
faith defined as merely religious. The 
fact that the moral ideal is identified with 
the personal God gives it a majesty and 
grandeur and thrill of enthusiasm utterly 
unknown to the faith on the lower plane. 
The conception of the personal God won- 
derfully increases the elements of love 
and duty, and adds to the self-surrender 
and sacrifice an intense and profound per- 
sonal satisfaction. But even with the 
profound note this faith is all but despair. 
It has no joyfulness, no shout of victory. 
There is no way for man to reach the God 
and no way for God to come down to help 
the man; "neither is there any daysman 



Faith 109 

betwixt us, that might lay his hand upon 
us both." Job, Socrates, and Carlyle are 
good examples of faith on this plane. 

III. OLD TESTAMENT FAITH 

"On the Old Testament plane the ideal 
is essentially the same, that is, a personal 
God, and the moral law as an expres- 
sion of the personal God, but the ideal 
is so colored by the Messianic prophe- 
cies as greatly to increase the element of 
regard." 

The Old Testament fathers had for 
their ideal a personal God and the moral 
law, but they had something more. The 
great thought in the Old Testament is the 
coming Messiah. God is coming to help. 
The hope of a coming Messiah gave a pe- 
culiar definiteness to their faith and made 
it great. The idea of Immanuel made the 
Hebrew prophet and poet a man of deep 
and intense joy. It was this idea that 
God was coming to help his people that 
lay at the foundation of the Old Testa- 



110 Personal Salvation 

ment priesthood and the day of atone- 
ment. 

The dominant note in Christian faith 
is this : God has come to help us. He is 
with us now. "If any man sin, we have an 
Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ 
the righteous : and he is the propitiation 
for our sins; and not for ours only, but 
also for the whole world." Christian faith 
will be defined and discussed at length in 
the next chapter. 

We cannot emphasize too greatly the 
idea that faith is an expression of the 
whole man in self-sacrifice and toil for a 
moral ideal. Longfellow's well-known 
poem "Excelsior" is an almost perfect 
delineation of the strenuousness of re- 
ligious faith. It has the conception of a 
high ideal, the duty of attaining it, love 
as a great motive power, and the ac- 
tion of the will to meet the ideal. The 
word "excelsior" is a part of a Latin 
phrase meaning "My goal is higher," 
and is here used as an expression of 



Faith 111 

"incessant aspiration after something 
higher :" 

"The shades of night were falling fast, 
As through an Alpine village passed 
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice, 
A banner with the strange device, 

'Excelsior !' 

"His brow was sad; his eye beneath 
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath, 
And like a silver clarion rung 
The accents of that unknown tongue, 

'Excelsior!'" 

Because the multitude were satisfied with 
their present attainment his aspiration 
and sacrifice spoke to them in a "strange" 
and "unknown tongue." He felt keenly 
the temptation to stay his course and en- 
joy the blessing near at hand, but his goal 
was higher : 

"In happy homes he saw the light 
Of household fires gleam warm and bright ; 
Above, the spectral glaciers shone, 
And from his lips escaped a groan, 
'Excelsior !' 

" 'O stay,' the maiden said, 'and rest 
Thy weary head upon this breast!' 
A tear stood in his bright blue eye, 
But still he answered, with a sigh, 
'Excelsior!'" 



112 Personal Salvation 

In the hour of testing there were none to 
help him, none to encourage, none to give 
him a hand of fellowship. The "old man" 
and the "peasant" warned him of the 
dangers of the way, but boldly he presses 
on to attain a goal they have long ago 
given up : 

" Try not the Pass!' the old man said; 
'Dark lowers the tempest overhead, 
The roaring torrent is deep and wide !' 
And loud that clarion voice replied, 
'Excelsior !' 

" 'Beware the pine tree's withered branch ! 
Beware the awful avalanche!' 
This was the peasant's last Good night. 
A voice replied, far up the height, 
'Excelsior!'" 

Dangers and difficulties only spur on the 
man of faith. His goal is higher. He 

"laughs at impossibilities, 
And cries, 'It shall be done !' " 

The long night, with its cold and storms 
and dangers, passed : 

"At break of day, as heavenward 
The pious monks of Saint Bernard 
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer, 
A voice cried through the startled air, 
'Excelsior!'" 



Faith 113 

On until late in the day the great struggle 
continued. But at last 

"A traveler, by the faithful hound, 
Half-buried in the snow was found, 
Still grasping in his hand of ice 
That banner with the strange device, 
'Excelsior !' " 

They only found his body. His spirit had 
gone on. He had been faithful to his 
ideal. He had suffered for it. He made 
sacrifices for it. He died for it. But he 
found it. He had gone up higher. The 
impetus of his faith carried him across to 
a "sky serene and far." 

"There in the twilight cold and gray, 
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay, 
And from the sky, serene and far, 
A voice fell, like a falling star, 
'Excelsior!'" 

But this faith, grand and heroic as it 
was, is correctly described as "merely re- 
ligious." The youth did not have any 
definite idea as to what he would find at 
the top of the mountain. He only knew 
that there was something higher than 
himself and that he would find it. 



114 Personal Salvation 

If the youth had seen a light at the top, 
shining through the window of a dwell- 
ing, assuring him that a Person waited to 
greet him when he came to the top, his 
faith would have been theistic. Still he 
would not have been conscious of help, 
even though invisible hands were smooth- 
ing his way and lessening his dangers. 

If he had seen a Man coming down 
from the house with a lantern, to find and 
assist him, he would have had the Old 
Testament faith, with its vision of a com- 
ing Messiah. This would have given a 
greater element of hope and assurance 
and love to the situation. 

Christian faith means that Christ has 
come. God is with us in the power of his 
mighty personality, standing by our side, 
his arm linked in ours, filling our hearts 
with courage and victory and fellowship, 
and inspiring new life into our lagging 
footsteps with stories of our Father's 
house and the welcome awaiting us in its 
many mansions. As the Christian jour- 



Faith 115 

neys he may keenly realize that "still afar 
the mountains are," yet he trustingly 
sings, with John Henry Newman : 

"Lead, kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom, 

Lead thou me on! 
The night is dark, and I am far from home; 

Lead thou me on! 

Keep thou my feet; I do not ask to see 
The distant scene; one step enough for me. 

"So long thy power hath blessed me, sure it still 

Will lead me on 
O'er moor and fen, o'er crag and torrent, till 

The night is gone, 

And with the morn those angel faces smile 
Which I have loved long since, and lost awhile !" 



116 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER XI 
CHRISTIAN FAITH 

"ON the Christian plane, faith, while it 
culminates in a definite act, is a personal 
bearing of the entire man, expressing his 
belief in Christ as God, his consequent 
duty toward Christ, his love for Christ, 
and a venture out upon Christ as his per- 
sonal Saviour." 

The value of the act of faith will not be 
hard to understand if we keep in mind 
the condition of the man who is exerci- 
sing the faith. He has been convicted of 
sin as a tHing against God, and he knows 
that the blame for his evil condition is all 
his own. In his despair God comes to 
him with a gracious offer of forgiveness 
and restoration. The man must choose 
between his sin and God. God makes a 
strong appeal to him. God's love and 
mercy have melted his heart. He hates 



Christian Faith 117 

his sin. He especially hates it because he 
has now come to realize what God is to 
him, and love and duty toward God come 
rushing upon him as a flood. Christ 
is presented to him as an atoning Saviour, 
as an only Saviour. Christ comes as God, 
with the authority of God. When the 
man decides against his sin, and chooses 
God, the God he accepts is Christ. The 
act of the will which chooses Christ com- 
mits the whole self to Christ, and the hu- 
man side of the rescue is completed. The 
man has put himself in God's hands. God 
will restore his soul. 

The fundamental thing in this Chris- 
tian faith is the belief in Christ as God. 
The man has sinned against God per- 
sonally, and God cannot delegate the act 
of forgiveness to another. The man de- 
mands, and rightly demands, that he be 
allowed to deal directly with God. Noth- 
ing else will do. The man cannot accept 
Christ, or allow Christ to have any rela- 
tion to the matter, until he is convinced 



118 Personal Salvation 

that Christ is God. There can be no 
Christian faith until the deity of the 
Christ is settled. And, somehow, when 
the man comes fairly to the test he accepts 
Christ as God without any hesitancy. The 
enlightenment, the conviction, the repent- 
ance, have quickened and unified the 
whole man. His faculties are all alert, 
they all work together. The sinner is not 
a theologian, but he knows what he 
wants, and when he sees Christ he knows 
he has found it. There is something 
about the personality of Christ that con- 
vinces the honest, eager heart that he is 
divine. It is not his genius, not his men- 
tal ability, not his miracles, not his spir- 
itual insight, not his love, not his self- 
sacrifice. But in some way his bearing 
expresses to us all the fullness of God, 
and, with the apostles, we behold his 
glory, the glory of the only begotten of 
the Father, full of grace and truth. The 
power of the sufferings and death of 
Christ lies in the fact that the suffering is 



Christian Faith * 119 

an expression of the self-sacrifice of God. 
The revival power of a church can almost 
be measured by the clearness of its belief 
in the deity of Christ. One great trouble 
with the Church is the utter flabbiness 
with which the fundamental Christian 
doctrines are held. 

With the mental side of the man car- 
ried, the recognition of duty and the af- 
fections are soon carried. If Christ is 
only a man there is no duty. But the man 
is dealing with God, who appeals to his 
whole moral nature. The feelings of duty 
and love arise spontaneously as soon as 
Christ is recognized as God. There is 
now a great motive to action, a compound 
motive composed of love and duty. This 
great motive urges the man to accept 
Christ. It does not compel him, but it 
wields a very great pressure. When the 
will submits the whole man is carried, and 
the total personality is joined to Christ by 
a declaration of loyal trust and allegiance 
whose motive power is love and duty. 



120 Personal Salvation 

All through the experiences discussed 
so far the man has believed in himself, in 
his moral nature, in the demands of his 
ideal, in the reality of a higher, purer life. 
The man decides that the hunger of his 
moral nature is not a dream but a reality. 
So when Christ comes it is easy to believe 
in him. He has trusted himself, he can 
trust Christ; so he takes his all and com- 
mits it to Christ for time and eternity. 

The relation between a lover and his 
bride is a clear illustration of faith. It 
begins with a mental attitude. There 
must be knowledge before there can be 
anything else. The woman presents cer- 
tain marked characteristics and facts 
which are data for mental judgment. If 
the woman by her appearance, disposi- 
tion, actions, etc., pleases the man his 
mental judgment approves her and a feel- 
ing of respect follows. By the dignity of 
his bearing and the greatness of his per- 
sonality Christ secures the approval of the 
judgment so soon as the facts concerning 



Christian Faith 121 

him are known. So far the two cases are 
parallel. The same faculties are con- 
cerned in each. The next step is love. 
Love cannot be forced. "The love which 
is the profoundest feeling of personal in- 
terest is a gift, pure and simple." The 
only thing that one can do to secure love 
is to put one's self in such a position that 
the gift of love may follow. The love 
when it conies furnishes motive power for 
further action. With the approval and 
the love the moral nature is interested, 
and duty arises to increase the strength of 
the motive and to become a part of it. 
The feeling of duty as a motive to mar- 
riage may not be very strong, but in rela- 
tion to Christ the feeling of duty is very 
strong, since Christ is God and we feel the 
force of his demands upon us. Christ is 
also so supremely beautiful and lovable 
that he easily wins the heart and carries 
the moral nature with it. But, with the 
love and duty present, the attitude is not 
yet that of faith. The intellect has con- 



122 Personal Salvation 

ceived an end, and there is a strong com- 
pound motive, composed of duty and love, 
toward the action necessary to secure the 
end, but there is no faith until the will is 
carried and the total self is carried over 
and joined and entirely committed in 
trust to the care of another. A man may 
have the approval of judgment, and feel 
the love and duty very keenly, and still 
for some reason refuse to commit himself 
by marriage to the woman he loves. So a 
man may approve Christ as his God and, 
with a clear recognition of love and duty, 
still refuse the surrender of will by which 
he definitely commits himself to Christ. 

When a man commits himself to Christ 
by faith he knows that he has done it just 
as surely as a man knows when he has 
made up his mind to marry his sweet- 
heart. The man also knows that he is 
accepted of God, because God has prom- 
ised forgiveness to all who come to him 
by faith. FaitH secures a personal union 
with God which makes doubt impossible. 



Christian Faith 123 

And here again we see the necessity of a 
definite belief in Christ as God. If a man 
in his extreme need grasped for a moment 
at the word of a man or of an angel, and 
found momentary relief in that, still the 
time would come when he would doubt. 
Also, as we shall see, faith secures a vital 
union between the believer and the object 
of his faith. If a man joins himself by 
faith to a man, it matters not how perfect 
that man may be nor how full of the spirit 
and blessing of God, the believer has not 
yet secured that personal relation with 
God which is the goal of all religious 
endeavor. 

The act of faith is the climax of con- 
version. The rescue is instantly complete. 
The work that God must do he does in- 
stantly. The man may or may not be at 
the time conscious of the divine work in 
the rescue. 

The act of faith may or may not be ac- 
companied by emotional excitement. That 
depends upon the man and his disposi- 



124 Personal Salvation 

tion and surroundings. Until the faith is 
consummated it is a time for calm delib- 
eration and great earnestness and serious- 
ness. The seeker should never be bewild- 
ered or hindered by having his thoughts 
or attention directed to anything except 
Christ and the surrender to him. When 
the surrender is made and Christ is ac- 
cepted there will be joy and peace as a re- 
sult of the union with Christ. The divine 
plan is that the man shall come into the 
relation toward God of a loving and obe- 
dient child. By repentance and faith the 
man has surrendered himself in joyful al- 
legiance to that plan. There is joy among 
the angels and in the church because a 
new brother has been born into the family 
of God. 



The Righteous Quality of Faith 125 



CHAPTER XII 
THE RIGHTEOUS QUALITY OF FAITH 

THE rescue from sin which God has 
provided is not a legal, forensic, or formal 
redemption, concerning itself merely with 
external things. It is complete and per- 
fect, and exactly meets the necessity of 
the situation both within and without. It 
lifts the man out of the wreck of sin and 
gets the sin out of the man. It gets the 
man into the kingdom of God and gets 
the kingdom of God into the man. At 
every stage the man acts of his own free 
will, and yet his rescue is all of God. 
God meets the man, wherever he is, and 
by a very simple process the whole man 
is gathered up and started on toward the 
goal. Without having any violence done 
to his nature the man is so completely sep- 
arated from his sins that he is, in a very 
real sense, a new creature, yet his per- 

9 



126 Personal Salvation 

sonal identity is not disturbed. The se- 
cret of the whole process lies in the 
quality and results of the act of faith by 
which the rescue is secured. Faith is not 
an arbitrary condition which takes the 
place of righteous conduct, but is of itself 
righteous conduct of the very highest or- 
der, and it is also a guarantee of righteous 
conduct in the future. It has a power of 
its own to secure a righteous result which 
is a true inward holiness. Thus, for the 
reason that faith has an ethical quality 
and an ethical result, it can be trusted to 
secure the beginning, continuance, and 
completion of the whole Christian life. 

Faith, even on the lowest plane, has a 
true ethical quality. There are two ele- 
ments in faith which give it this righteous 
quality: (i) The conscience is involved, 
and duty is a part of the motive leading to 
the decision of the will. This fact gives 
to the decision a moral quality and makes 
the act of faith righteous conduct. (2) 
In faith the total man is carried, and any- 



The Righteous Quality of Faith 127 

thing which carries the total man has a 
righteous quality, since man is made in 
the image of God. In sin the man is frag- 
mentary. His sin is never an expression 
of his total self. The image of God is held 
in abeyance, "held down in unrighteous- 
ness." But when a man expresses his 
whole self, as he does in faith, he ex- 
presses the image of God within him, and 
that makes such expression a righteous 
act. The act of faith is the beginning of 
holiness. 

Faith has also in addition to its right- 
eous quality an ethical or righteous re- 
sult. The ideal which draws out the 
faith is a righteous ideal, and in follow- 
ing the ideal there is a righteous result. 
A man becomes like that which he 
thinks upon and loves and endeavors to 
secure, (i) Faith has ajnjLinselfishJdjeaL 
The center of the man's life is trans- 
ferred from self to something outside of 
self. The life begins to reorganize about 
the unselfish ideal, and the beauty of the 



128 Personal Salvation 

ideal permeates the whole man. There 
can be no faith without an ideal entirely 
unselfish and outside the man himself. 
The cure of a disease can never be made 
an object of faith. There cannot be an 
unselfish motive of love and duty toward 
the securing of such an end. Because 
faith has for its object a righteous ideal 
entirely without the self it has a righteous 
result. (2) Faith, as Paul says, "works 
by love." This means that love is a part 
of the motive leading to the action. This 
element of love is particularly strong in 
Christian faith. To the Christian "God 
is love; benignant, self -communicating, 
self-sacrificing love. ToJjeHeve in such 

9L.^?i!L^5^Ll2XS: s i m ^ ar m spirit, 
if limited in capacity the JawjojMife. 
Not the love of gratitude alone, but the 
love of adoration for the highest conceiv- 
able ethical ideal realized in the divine 
nature" (A. B. Bruce). There is a very 
vigorous and profound spiritual law that 
the choice of a motive strengthens that 



The Righteous Quality of Faith 129 

motive and weakens all opposing motives. 
Hence, when in faith the compound mo- 
tive of love for and duty toward a right- 
eous ideal is chosen, that motive is 
strengthened and all opposing motives are 
weakened. By the expression of faith, 
and by the continued attitude of faith, the 
motive of love and duty for the righteous 
ideal goes on from strength to strength 
until it gains entire control of the whole 
life and all opposing motives are killed. 
Thus the righteous character is fixed as 
a result of faith. (3) The third^righteous 
result of faith is that the man in faith 

This vital union with 
Christ secured by faith has both a right- 
eous quality and a righteous result. 

Thus we see that faith is not an ar- 
bitrary condition, securing a merely for- 
mal or legal pardon. It is a powerful 
principle energized by an unselfish love, 
meriting, in a certain sense, the grace 
with which God meets it. 




130 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER XIII 

FAITH AND THE DIVINE. SIDE OF CON- 
VERSION 

THE work of God in the actual rescue 
from sin is threefold. It is one work in 
the sense that it is all done at one time, 
and it is completely and perfectly done 
immediately following- the act of faith. 
The sinner has repented of his sins and 
definitely accepted God. God immediate- 
ly accepts the sinner, and a perfect recon- 
ciliation at once takes place. This recon- 
ciliation has three distinct phases which 
can be easily distinguished, even though 
they all occur at once. The sinner by his 
sin has made himself liable to punishment, 
and has also personally offended God. 
The reconciliation means that the of- 
fenses, in so far as they relate to the moral 
law, are pardoned, and that the man, in 
so far as he has grieved God, is forgiven. 



Divine Side of Conversion 131 

The sinner by his sin has so dissipated 
and degraded his moral powers that im- 
purity pervades his whole nature, and he 
has no settled purpose of righteousness 
and no power to live up to such a purpose 
if he had it. In the rescue from sin the 
man acquires a guiding principle of right- 
eousness with power to follow its lead- 
ings. The Holy Spirit does such a work 
within the man that he has power to over- 
come all sin and lead a holy life. The sin- 
ner by his sin has separated himself from 
God's family, has gone into a far country, 
and is outside of God's plan for the hu- 
man race. The reconciliation with God 
means that the man has returned to God 
and is adopted into God's family and has 
all the rights and privileges of the sons of 
God. God sends the spirit of his own Son 
into his heart, teaching him to say "Abba, 
Father," and witnessing to the new filial 
relation. 

Each of these phases of personal sal- 
vation will be discussed in due time. The 



132 Personal Salvation 

purpose now is to show how each of these 
elements of the divine side of the rescue 
is related to the act of faith. By faith the 
man has joined himself to Christ in loy- 
alty and holy allegiance. The profound 
element in the situation is this: God no 
longer deals with the man through the 
moral law, but he deals with him per- 
sonally through Christ. Because the man 
is joined to Christ the past is all forgotten 
and blotted out, and God deals with the 
man from the new standpoint. And God 
also deals with the present as a prophecy 
of the future. God does not judge the 
man by each detail of his life, but by the 
union with Christ, which is a settled pur- 
pose of righteousness, guaranteeing per- 
fect conduct in due time. The man is 
saved that is, he has escaped punish- 
ment and is a personal friend of God 
not because he is perfect, but because he 
is joined to Christ. If the man were deal- 
ing with the law the law would demand 
sanctification and glorification all at once. 



Divine Side of Conversion 133 

But he is dealing personally with God in 
Christ, and God, having secured by the 
man's faith a loyal person, is well content 
to wait for the holy person and the per- 
fect man, knowing that the first will se- 
cure the others as sure as the day follows 
the sunrise. 

In a home in a western village was a 
son thirteen years of age. For a year he 
had been lying to his parents and to his 
teacher, had played truant, and acquired 
other vicious habits. The habit of lying 
had taken a specially strong hold on him. 
Finally the father became aware of the 
situation and sought some punishment 
that should lift up before the boy and the 
rest of the family the wickedness of such 
conduct. The father's attitude was one 
of stern righteousness. The boy would 
not show any sorrow for his sin, and 
finally, knowing that a punishment was 
coming, he ran away. The mother had 
been very feeble for some time, and the 
father -had kept the most of the truth 



134 Personal Salvation 

from her, but at last, since the boy was 
gone, he had to tell her the whole truth. 
The mother quickly understood the situ- 
ation, and would not allow the father to 
bend from his stern attitude. The real 
problem before them was not merely to 
get the boy home, but to get him to repent 
of his sin and become loyal to their au- 
thority. They needed something that 
would reach the very center of the situa- 
tion and soften the boy's heart, rescue 
him from his sin, and restore him to true 
sonship in the family. The mother solved 
the difficulty. Sick and feeble as she was, 
she started out, on a dark and stormy 
night, to find the boy and bring him home. 
The father at home paced the floor and 
suffered tenfold more than tHe mother. 
After a long and weary search the mother 
found him asleep on some rubbish in an 
old mill. When she awakened him from 
his sleep he realized at once his mother's 
sacrifice for him and his sin against his 
parents, and he broke all to pieces. Re- 



Divine Side of Conversion 135 

pentant and sorrowful, and yet with a 
new and profound love for his mother, 
he went home with her, supporting her as 
he could, for she was utterly exhausted. 
Together they tottered through the door 
at home, where the father waited with 
anxious heart to receive them. Mother 
and son, he gathered them to his arms in 
one strong embrace, and that moment the 
boy was justified, forgiven. A great and 
new thing had come into the boy's life 
which in a very real sense made him a 
new creature: this new thing was a new 
love for his parents, and especially his 
new attitude toward his mother and his 
new loyalty to her. This furnished a 
center for future operations, and the fa- 
ther's attitude of stern righteousness was 
buried in the new relation. The father 
could not weaken his demands or change 
his attitude so long as the boy was re- 
bellious. But now that the boy is repent- 
ant, and is joined to his mother by a new 
and powerful tie, the father can safely 



136 Personal Salvation 

forgive the boy and deal with him from 
the new standpoint. And the father can 
do this with perfect safety, since the boy 
and the rest of the family get from the 
mother's self-sacrifice a keener sense of 
the wickedness of the sin than they could 
have gotten from any amount of direct 
punishment. The mother's motive was 
not merely love. It was a holy love which 
not only sought to bring back the boy but 
sought to bring him back a good boy. The 
mother's suffering expressed both the fa- 
ther's righteousness and the father's and 
mother's love. The boy clearly under- 
stands this, and for this reason the pun- 
ishment can be remitted and the boy for- 
given. And this new attitude toward his 
mother not only secures his present for- 
giveness; it secures a right course of con- 
duct in the future. The lying habit may 
be so strong that the boy will sometimes 
lie unconsciously, but it is not the same 
kind of a lie as before. As soon as he 
thinks of his moth'er he will repent of the 



Divine Side of Conversion 137 

lie. The father knows that as long as the 
boy is joined to his mother he is going on 
toward righteousness. Having secured a 
loyal boy, he can safely wait for the good 
boy. And the new situation is much more 
powerful than the old one in securing the 
good boy. 

The boy's attitude toward his mother 
is precisely that of faith. When his 
mother came to him there was knowledge, 
love, and duty, and a decision of the will 
by which he definitely committed himself 
in loyal trust to his mother. He was res- 
cued by faith, and the faith has a peculiar 
and vital relation to all his parents' atti- 
tudes toward him. Just so God in Christ 
goes after the sinner, melts his heart and 
offers him salvation. By faith the sinner 
joins himself to Christ in loving trust and 
loyalty, and God forgives him and uses 
this new factor in his life to secure future 
holiness. For this reason holiness is the 
second goal of personal salvation. By the 
very nature of the case, there cannot be a 



138 Personal Salvation 

holy person until there is a loyal person 
to be made a holy person. 

So a man is not justified because he is 
perfect. He is justified because he is 
joined in the whole man to Christ. God 
judges a Christian man by his relation to 
Christ, and not by his relation to the 
moral law. But the moral law is in 
Christ, and the Christian's duty is greater 
than before because of his love for Christ. 
Thus a man is saved by faith and not by 
works. Paul used legal terms because 
they were clear-cut and carried definite 
ideas, but he has the great truth beneath. 
He is all the time thinking of the union 
with Christ and the ethical quality of that 
union. James would say that the boy 
was saved by going home with his 
mother. Paul goes much deeper and ex- 
presses the real truth, and would say that 
the boy was saved because of his new at- 
titude toward his mother; that is, by 
faith. 



Divine Side of Conversion 139 

SUMMARY 

1. "When a man has faith in Christ as 
his personal Saviour this faith really joins 
the man to Christ in holy allegiance." 

2. "Because faith results in the holy 
allegiance it is a fitting ethical substitute 
for the former demand of obedience to the 
moral law. That is, faith, while a condi- 
tion of salvation, is not arbitrary, but is 
selected for the precise reason that it has 
an ethical content and brings about a 
powerful ethical result." 



140 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER XIV 
JUSTIFICATION 

"JUSTIFICATION is a forensic term, 
meaning that a guilty man is forgiven, 
because Christ died to save him, on the 
condition of personal faith in Christ as 
Saviour. But, deeper yet, justification 
means that God has given up the old 
way of dealing with man, through the 
moral law, and now deals with him as 
a man joined to Christ in holy allegiance. 
God's bearing is changed, but the new 
bearing is fully as righteous as the old 



one." 



In every chapter the fact has been em- 
phasized that the goal of all religion is to 
bring the man into a closer personal rela- 
tion with the holy God. This means that 
the man will be inwardly and outwardly 
holy and full of love in every part. But 
it means more than that; it means that 



Justification 141 

the man is God's friend and that there is 
personal communion and fellowship be- 
tween them. Hence the great work in the 
rescue from sin is to get the man to cease 
his opposition to God and submit himself 
;to God in loyal and loving obedience. 
This submission and trust bring the man 
into a proper relation with God, and 
there is perfect harmony and peace and 
fellowship between them. The justified 
state is exactly illustrated by the case of 
the boy mentioned in the last chapter. 
The goal of the family government is to 
secure loving and trustful loyalty from 
the children to the parents and to their 
plan for the home. In the case mentioned 
this was secured by the mother's sacrifice 
and the boy's loyalty to her. With the 
proper relation between parent and child 
any desired result can be obtained. If the 
boy has been disobedient this will secure 
obedience. If he has acquired evil habits 
this will secure his escape from them. 

Now the justified man stands in precisely 
10 



142 Personal Salvation 

the same relation to God. He has sub- 
mitted himself in loyal and loving trust. 
God can do with him what he will. The 
justified state is a state of peace with God, 
of fellowship with God, of obedience to 
God, of complete abandonment of every- 
thing displeasing to God, of freedom 
from willful sin, a state of sonship in 
God's family, and of rapid development of 
all the habits and personal virtues of the 
sons of God. Justification is the first goal 
and the greatest goal of personal salva- 
tion and personal religion. It is never 
superseded or overshadowed by any other 
state or blessing. To the end of the 
eternities God deals with the Christian 
through his motive of love and loyalty to 
the Lord Jesus Christ; that is, by the new 
personal relation secured by faith. If, as 
a result of the personal relation with God, 
the motive of love and loyalty to Christ 
becomes absolutely dominant in the man's 
life, thus securing entire inward holiness, 
the justified state is not superseded nor 



Justification 143 

its glory dimmed, but it is thereby made 
secure. If in the life after death the per- 
sonal fellowship with God should secure 
for the man an actual becoming of 
what he really means to be, thus 
extending the perfect holiness of inten- 
tion to an actual holiness of conduct, the 
justified state is not thereby weakened or 
passed by, but is merely coming into pos- 
session of its own. If on the day of res- 
urrection the whole man, soul and body, 
is glorified by the power of God and, con- 
formed within and without to the image 
of God's only begotten Son, and comes 
into God's immediate and visible presence, 
he does not cease to live by faith, nor is his 
blessing of justification swallowed up in 
the bliss of heaven. For the first time in 
all his existence the man is freed from 
limitations and has opportunity to know 
the real height and depth and length and 
breadth of justification; that is, of per- 
sonal friendship with God. The man who 
belittles the justified state needs to taste 



144 Personal Salvation 

again the bread of life that he may learn 
its flavor. 

The conviction of sin had a double ele- 
ment; a realization of the guilt of sin 
and of the fact of God's personal dis- 
pleasure. When the sinner repents of his 
sin, and accepts Christ by faith, he escapes 
the just punishment due his sins and is 
also restored to God's personal favor. 
Thus justification includes the two ele- 
ments of pardon and forgiveness. 

PARDON 

The sinner has broken the law and is 
under sentence of punishment. "The 
soul that sinneth, it shall die." The sinner 
has been tried and found guilty. He ad- 
mits his guilt and blames no one but him- 
self. The sentence has been announced. 
But God, the just Judge, announces that, 
on condition of the sinner's repentance 
and faith, he will be pardoned. The man 
meets the conditions, and thus goes free. 
God will not execute the punishment that 



Justification 145 

his sins deserve. The boy who sinned 
against his parents did two things: he 
personally displeased his father and also 
laid himself liable to the punishment 
which the father has set for disobedience. 
The father can pardon the boy and not 
inflict the punishment. But neither the 
boy nor his father is satisfied with that. 
The personal displeasure remains. A 
real reconciliation must remove the per- 
sonal friction and secure perfect harmony. 
Justification is much more profound than 
pardon, in that it carries with it the per- 
sonal element of forgiveness. The sin 
is pardoned, the man is forgiven. 

FORGIVENESS 

This is the profound element of justifi- 
cation, the restoration to personal favor 
with God. Any boy with the right spirit 
would rather take a whipping and have 
his father's good will and favor than es- 
cape the whipping and still be under his* 
father's displeasure. So, in a normal con- 



146 Personal Salvation 

version, the sinner thinks more of getting 
right with God than of escaping punish- 
ment. This personal peace with God is 
the blessedness of justification. This is 
the source of 

"The sweet comfort and peace 
Of a soul in its earliest love." 

This peace is a real experience, as the 
song testifies : 

"That sweet comfort was mine, 

When the favor divine 
I received through the blood of the Lamb; 

When my heart first believed, 

What a joy I received, 
What a heaven in Jesus' s namel 

"Jesus all the day long 

Was my joy and my song : 
O that all his salvation might see! 

'He hath loved me,' I cried, 

'He hath suffered and died, 
To redeem even rebels like me:' 

"O the rapturous height 

Of that holy delight 
Which I felt in the life-giving blood! 

Of my Saviour possessed, 

I was perfectly blessed, 
As if filled with the fullness of God." 



Justification 147 

Justification is an act and a state. As 
an act, it is pardon and forgiveness; as a 
state, it is a continuation and an increase 
of the peaceful and happy relation with 
the personal God. The man is in the 
happy state, not because he is perfect, but 
because he is joined to Christ. God deals 
with him in this new way just as the fa- 
ther dealt with his son in a new way be- 
cause of his new relation to his mother. 
Some one may say that the sinner needs 
something more than pardon, he needs to 
be actually made good. True, he needs 
something more than pardon, and he 
needs, at present, something much more 
profound than to be made good. He 
needs the personal love and friendship of 
God, and that which he most needs God 
gives him. A man cannot be in a state of 
friendship with God without having his 
whole life transformed into the likeness 
of his divine Friend. If a man is walking 
witfi God in personal communion day by 
day we can trust that man to come out at 



148 Personal Salvation 

the right place. God will give him a 
hunger for all that he needs, and then 
will abundantly supply the hunger from 
his own unexhaustible supply. The only 
trouble is that so many professed Chris- 
tians do not constantly walk with God, 
constantly endeavoring to put on the Lord 
Jesus Christ, making no provision to ful- 
fill the lusts of the flesh. 

This personal relation to God does not, 
however, of itself remove the depraved 
nature and the ruin of sin. It is not 
enough that we are personal friends with 
a great physician. The physician must 
actually apply the necessary remedies be- 
fore the disease is removed. But the phy- 
sician cannot heal us until we put our- 
selves in his care. So our new relation to 
God, secured by faith in Christ, gives to 
God an opportunity to do something that 
he could not do before; that is, actually 
heal the disease of sin. The act of faith 
which joins the man to Christ not only 
secures his pardon and forgiveness; it 



Justification 149 

also secures a renewal of his nature, a 
change of heart which transfers the center 
of the life from self to Christ and thus 
brings about true inward holiness. This 
change of heart is properly called a new 
birth, a regeneration. To it we now turn 
our attention. 



150 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER XV 

REGENERATION 

SALVATION is a rescue from sin and 
from all the results of sin. Deserved pun- 
ishment and the displeasure of God are 
two results of sin which are removed by 
justification. Sin also reacts upon the 
man himself and tends to destroy the 
whole moral nature. From the depravity 
of nature the sinner is delivered by the 
second element of the divine side of con- 
version, regeneration. Before taking up 
the subject in detail a statement by Dr. 
Curtis will throw light on the whole dis- 
cussion : 

"When a man is joined to Christ in 
holy allegiance by faith the Holy Spirit, 
who is always seeking to restore the man, 
finds a new opportunity in this new rela- 
tion which the man sustains to Christ. 
The man's new motive of loyalty to 



Regeneration 151 

Christ is filled with power and becomes 
the central organizing motive about 
which the Holy Spirit reconstructs the 
entire inner life. This is the man's 
new birth, or regeneration." 

WHY A NEW BIRTH IS NECESSARY 

"Ye must be born again/' "Put off, 
concerning the former conversation, the 
old man, which is corrupt according to 
the deceitful lusts; and be renewed in 
the spirit of your mind; . . . put 
on the new man, which after God is 
created in righteousness and true holi- 



ness." 



Regeneration is made necessary by the 
fact that sin has degraded and partly de- 
stroyed the moral nature. The image of 
God is broken and the man cannot restore 
himself, since his loss is a loss of that very 
power of holding the total self in subjec- 
tion to God. This depravity of nature is 
partly inherited and partly the result of 
personal sin. Sin produces a disease of 



152 Personal Salvation 

its own and aggravates a disease already 
present. This depraved state is : 

1. A state of moral darkness. 

Sin breaks off communication with God 
and interferes with the divine enlighten- 
ment. The sinner cannot tell what is 
right and what is wrong. He knows that 
there is a right and a wrong, but he has 
lost his bearings and, without a compass, 
wanders here and there in the fog, not 
knowing whether he is going toward the 
desired haven or toward the deadly break- 
ers. This moral darkness is somewhat al- 
leviated by the enlightenment of the Holy 
Spirit, but this enlightenment is very 
small except to those under the influence 
of the Gospel. So long as the man con- 
tinues in sin the Spirit has no opportunity 
to remove that darkness. 

2. A state of moral weakness. 

The sinner cannot do the right even 
when he knows what the right is. He is 
not only in a fog without a compass; he 
has disabled his rudder and cannot .sail a 



Regeneration 153 

course after he has decided upon one. "To 
will is present with me, but how to per- 
form that which is good I find not." 

3. A state of moral impurity. 

The sinner has come to love a great 
many things which are sinful and degrad- 
ing and hateful to God. He is not only 
adrift in a fog, part of the time he is glad 
of it. He does wrong because he loves 
darkness rather than light. One hour he 
decides to hunt up the harbor and to en- 
deavor to reach it. The next hour he de- 
liberately guides his sinking craft deeper 
into the fog and away from the harbor 
bell which began to sound in his ears. . His 
love for right is not a day dawn, but only 
a single flash of lightning which is swal- 
lowed up in the deeper darkness of a wild 
and stormy night. The only power that 
can scatter that darkness is the power 
which in the beginning said, "Let there 
be light," and light was. 

These three elements of the depraved 
state may all be summed up in one word, 



154 Personal Salvation 

unholy. The word holy has come to 
mean moral purity, but that is a derived 
and secondary meaning. A holy person 
is a person who demands of himself that 
every act, word, and thought be an ex- 
pression of the total self. This means 
that his moral righteousness shall find 
expression in every activity of the per- 
sonality, thus securing moral purity for 
every activity. As the word "holiness" is 
generally used, this effect of holiness is 
meant rather than the cause, which is the 
real holiness. This does very well for 
popular speech, but when theories of re- 
generation and sanctification are built on 
this figure of speech the result is both con- 
fusing and amusing. 

The sinner is unholy. This means 
primarily that there is no one center that 
controls and entirely dominates his whole 
life. He is fragmentary. His acts are 
not an expression of his total self, but 
only of a part of himself now this part, 
now that. If he tries to be good in one 



Regeneration 155 

respect he does not demand of himself 
that his purpose of goodness control him 
in all other respects. He has many unre- 
lated centers of action, each working for 
itself. He has some righteous motives 
and some sinful motives. Sometimes he 
chooses the good motives. At other times 
he chooses the sinful motives. His nature 
is not organic. He has no center, no one 
great motive which entirely controls him. 
His moral system has no sun as a center 
of gravitation to bring other centers into 
subjection to itself. When he tries to be 
good he finds a large part of himself re- 
belling against such action. When he 
does evil he is still at war with himself. 
The petty strife of the feudal system has 
not given place to the settled government 
of a strong monarchy. This scattered, di- 
vided state is a result of sin. It is in- 
herited depravity aggravated by personal 
sin. Since the man loves some wicked- 
ness, and has no adequate knowledge of 
right and wrong and no power to attain 



156 Personal Salvation 

the right even if he knew it, it is easily 
seen that without some outside power 
comes to his relief he can never be free 
from his sad condition. He is as a sailor 
who, in strange and dangerous waters, 
has steered his vessel into a dense and 
thickening fog, where with compass and 
rudder gone he flounders in utter helpless- 
ness. Unless some friendly pilot comes 
quickly to his aid, marks out his course, 
and restores both compass and rudder, a 
fatal wreck is both sure and irrevocable. 
Neither pilot, compass, nor rudder will 
avail a lost vessel when once it is broken 
and firmly settled in the mud. 

THE NEW BIRTH SECURED BY FAITH 

To the man in this unsettled, unholy 
state God comes and, by conviction of 
sin, shows him his sad condition and of- 
fers a rescue. The only thing that the 
man can do is to exercise faith; that is, to 
surrender himself in loyal trust to the 
Pilot. This act of faith is the man's first 



Regeneration 157 

move toward a real holiness; for the first 
time the man has given expression to his 
total self. Man is made in the image of 
God, having intellect, sensibility, will, and 
a moral nature. In sin only a part of the 
man is carried. Faith gathers up the 
whole man and commits it to God. By 
this decision and trust the whole man re- 
jects sin and chooses God; he joins him- 
self to Christ in a declaration of alle- 
giance. A great and new center has come 
into his life. The man has with his whole 
nature chosen the motive of love and 
loyalty to Christ. 

Three things immediately follow this 
act of faith : 

1. The man is forgiven and comes into 
personal peace with God. 

2. He is regenerated. 

3. He is adopted into God's family. 
Great emphasis is put on the fact that 

these three elements of the divine side of 
conversion immediately follow the act of 

faith. This emphasis is necessary since 
11 



158 Personal Salvation 

some are teaching that a man may come 
to God by faith, asking for pardon and 
forgiveness, and receive it, and not be re- 
generated, or born again, until years 
afterward. 

THE REGENERATE STATE 

The fatal defect of the unregenerate 
state is that the life is not organic, there 
is no one center, no one great motive that 
entirely controls the whole man. Several 
good motives are present, but no one of 
them is great enough or total enough to 
meet the need and organize the whole 
life about itself, even if God should come 
and add his own power to that motive. 
Man's nature is never perfect until God is 
enthroned as supreme Ruler, and this 
need of God cannot be brought into sub- 
jection to something less than a complete 
surrender and trust in God such as faith 
affords. The act of faith which carries 
the total man in loving trust and loyalty 
to the very best the man knows is suffi- 



Regeneration 159 

ciently great and profound to meet the 
need. This presents to the Holy Spirit 
an opportunity he never before had, and 
he immediately fills that new center with 
a life and power which will enable it to 
reorganize the whole man about itself. If 
this new motive were left to itself it 
would have to take its chances with other 
good motives, and it might be overcome 
of evil. But God adds his own divine life 
to this motive, and the Holy Spirit ten- 
derly nurtures it, and thus it has power to 
overcome the depravity and make the 
man holy. Thus the man is renewed, 
born again, becomes a new creation. His 
course is marked out, compass and rudder 
are restored, the friendly Pilot stands by 
ready to supply every need. This new 
center, full of divine life, will take up all 
other motives and bring them into subjec- 
tion to the one motive of loyalty to Christ. 
If any of the motives are so bad that they 
cannot be related to the motive of loyalty 
to Christ they are destroyed, and cease to 



160 Personal Salvation 

exist as a part of that man. If the man 
loves anything which cannot be made a 
part of the love for Christ that love is 
killed, and the man comes to hate that 
which he once loved. Regeneration is a 
work of the Holy Spirit in which he im- 
parts a divine life which will entirely 
renovate the soul and bring all its powers 
into relation to Christ, thus making the 
man holy. 

The renewal of the nature resulting 
from the impartation of power to the 
great new motive exactly meets the de- 
pravity resulting from sin. 

i. It removes the moral darkness. 
Since the man has joined himself to 
Christ he has ceased trying to settle cases 
of right and wrong and follows Christ. 
"Paul with the old Pharisaic truth cuts a 
swath of destruction in the name of duty, 
haling men and women to prison. We 
find him one moment with a pocket full of 
documents, charts, plans, and specifica- 
tions of what he shall do and how he shall 



Regeneration 161 

do it. The next moment the light flashes 
upon him, the Christ is before him, and 
his soul rushes forward with the cry, 
'Lord, what wilt thou have me do?' He 
asks for no specifications, charts, or plans. 
He is ready to take sealed orders from the 
Christ to go where he wants him to go 
and do what he wants him to do." So 
long as he follows Christ he can do no 
wrong. In addition to this personal rela- 
tion to Christ there is a quickening of the 
moral powers as a result of the indwelling 
of the Holy Spirit. New opportunities 
are also given for spiritual enlighten- 
ment. 

2. It removes the moral weakness. The 
decision of -the will by which sin was re- 
jected and God chosen has greatly weak- 
ened all evil motives and strengthened all 
good ones. The decision has also given 
a new power to the will itself. The im- 
partation of divine life and the renewal 
resulting has given to the will a great 
victory. Every converted man finds him- 



162 Personal Salvation 

self with a new moral power which en- 
ables him to overcome sin. God's power 
is added to his own, and the loyalty to 
Christ gives him victory over all things 
displeasing to Christ. 

3. It takes away the love for sinful 
things. The rejection of sin and the 
choice of God forever kills all desire 
toward some sins. It may not remove all 
love for evil things, but it does remove 
some, and the great love for Christ and 
the new relation to Christ sets the whole 
man fighting against all tendencies to 
sin, and they will soon lose their power 
if resisted. The powerful, Spirit-filled, 
new love takes the place of all former 
loves. 

4. It removes the unholy state. The 
great and new center is endowed with a 
power which will enable it to organize the 
whole life about itself. The life becomes 
organic. The man becomes holy. This 
will be more carefully discussed in the 
chapter on "Christian Holiness." 



Regeneration 163 

Thus is seen the vital connection be- 
tween faith and the divine side of conver- 
sion. It is not a formal condition, but a 
real and necessary part of the rescue. Man 
cannot have peace with God until he 
ceases his opposition to God. A mere 
declaration of pardon on God's part 
would not change the situation at all. It 
is of no use for God to impart a new 
life until there is something to impart 
it to, something sufficiently great to 
hold it. God does not put new wine in 
old bottles. 

In discussing Christian holiness the 
state of entire sanctification should al- 
ways be compared with and related to the 
regenerate state instead of the justified 
state. Justification is an act of pardon 
and a state of personal peace, fellowship, 
friendship, and loyalty to God. This 
state abides, and is never succeeded or 
weakened by another state. In regenera- 
tion a work is begun which will end in 
Christian holiness. That no one may 



164 Personal Salvation 

think that we are departing from Meth- 
odist teaching, this chapter will be closed 
with statements from three typical Meth- 
odist teachers. The statements are some- 
what abridged, but represent their views 
in their own words : 

STATEMENT BY JOHN WESLEY 

"Justification and the new birth are in 
point of time inseparable from each other, 
yet they are easily distinguished as not 
being the same. God in justifying us 
does something for us; in begetting us 
again he does a work in us. The former 
changes our outward relation to God, so 
that of enemies we become children, by 
the latter our inmost souls are changed, 
so that of sinners we become saints. The 
one restores to the favor and the other to 
the image of God. Being born of God 
implies a vast inward change, a change 
wrought in the soul by the operation of 
the Holy Ghost. The new birth is the 
change wrought in the whole soul by the 



Regeneration 165 

almighty Spirit of God when it is 'created 
anew in Christ Jesus/ when it is 'renewed 
after the image of God in righteousness 
and true holiness/ In a word, it is that 
change whereby the earthly, sensual, 
devilish mind is turned into the 'mind 
which was in Christ Jesus/ When we are 
born again, then our sanctification, our 
inward and outward holiness begins; and 
thenceforward we are gradually 'to grow 
up in Him who is our head. 5 A child is 
born of a woman in a moment, or at least 
in a very short time; afterward he grad- 
ually and slowly grows, till he attains to 
the stature of a man. In like manner a 
child is born of God in a short time, if 
not in a moment. But it is by slow de- 
grees that he afterward grows up to the 
measure of the full stature of Christ. The 
same relation, therefore, which there is 
between our natural birth and our growth 
there is also between our new birth and 
our sanctification." (Sermon xlv, "The 
New Birth/') 



166 Personal Salvation 



STATEMENT BY JOHN MILEY 

"The necessity for regeneration lies in 
the depravity of our nature; such a neces- 
sity can be met only by a divine operation 
within the moral nature which shall pu- 
rify it and transform it into the moral 
likeness of the divine. As the depravity 
of the original parentage is transmitted 
through natural generation, so through 
regeneration we are transformed into the 
moral likeness of the Holy Spirit, By the 
new birth we receive the impress and like- 
ness of the Holy Spirit. The regenerate 
state is a state of subjective holiness. It 
must be a state of subjective holiness be- 
cause it is the result of an operation of the 
Holy Spirit which as really transforms 
the soul into the moral likeness of himself 
as the laws of nature determine the like- 
ness of the offspring to its parentage. In 
regeneration the 'old man is put off/ not 
only as a corrupt nature but as an evil 
life; and the new man is put on, not only 



Regeneration 167 

by a perfection of the moral nature but 
also in the habit of a new life in righteous- 
ness and true holiness. 

"We are justified and regenerated by 
the same act of faith. The two are coin- 
cident in time." (Systematic Theology, 
vol. ii, "Regeneration.") 

STATEMENT BY RANDOLPH S. FOSTER 

"Concurrently with pardon and for- 
giveness is a work done in the soul gen- 
erally designated as regeneration, and 
variously characterized in the Scriptures 
as being 'born again/ created anew in 
Christ Jesus, etc. Regeneration has to 
do with the soul itself, the condition and 
state of its powers. Pardon, by which the 
soul is entirely purged of guilt, does not 
at all affect the abnormalcy (depravity, 
disease) of nature into which the soul had 
fallen, and which has acquired additional 
strength by indulgence. But, concurrent- 
ly with pardon, God in the person of the 
Holy Ghost returns to and takes up his 



168 Personal Salvation 

loving and helpful abode in the soul from 
which guilt had expelled him, and by his 
presence and agency restores the lost 
equation, enables the soul to righteous- 
ness, rebuilds the shattered constitution, 
reduces usurpers to subjection, and rein- 
states the rightful Sovereign. The soul 
by this act is made normal. When the 
soul is forgiven guilt is removed. That 
is negative righteousness. When the 
soul is regenerated that is, born of God 
not only is sin removed but the prin- 
ciple of righteousness is implanted in it. 
That is positive righteousness. By the 
conjoint process the soul is made right- 
eous." (Philosophy of Christian Experi- 
ence, lecture vi, p. 116, seq.) 



Adoption 169 



CHAPTER XVI 
ADOPTION 

"ADOPTION is a legal term used by 
Paul to express in a striking way the new 
filial relation which a converted man has 
to God. Justification indicates that a man 
joined to Christ by faith has a new rela- 
tion to the moral law; regeneration in- 
dicates the corresponding new relation to 
the Holy Spirit; adoption indicates the 
corresponding new relation to the family 
of God/' 

"This family of God is a new spirit- 
ual organism, in fact, a new race, which 
is being organized about Christ our 
Saviour. The converted man is made 
a vital point in the vast communion 
of saints where God is fully realized as 
Father." 

"Thus, while the practical climax of 



170 Personal Salvation 

conversion is in Christian holiness, the 
climax in the philosophy of the divine 
plan is really in adoption." 

The real significance of redemption 
cannot be felt without a clear conception 
of what is meant by the "family of God." 
If we can find out what God is trying to 
do with us we can the better work with 
God to secure the desired result. What, 
then, was God's purpose in creating man, 
and what is his purpose now ? The Bible 
tells us that man was created a moral per- 
son, in the image of God, and that he was 
created in racial connection. "By noting 
this fact it is clear that the purpose of 
creation was to get a racial brotherhood 
of moral persons." What, then, is God's 
aim in redemption? Again let Dr. Curtis 
reply : "In creation God's aim was to get 
a racial brotherhood of holy persons; and 
in redemption the aim is to get such a 
brotherhood out of a race of sinful men. 
There are, it will be seen, two sides to this 
aim: the personal side, to get the holy 



Adoption 171 

man, and the racial side, to get the holy 
brotherhood." 

Thus, while God's primal purpose re- 
mains unchanged, the entrance of sin 
compelled him to change the method. Sin 
wrought a great injury both to the man 
and to the brotherhood. To the person it 
brought guilt, separation from God, and 
a deadly injury to the whole moral struc- 
ture. Sin also broke up the organic 
brotherhood of the race, thus making of 
the race a complete failure, and on ac- 
count of this failure the natural race by 
the method of physical death ceases to be. 
So there is a double need of redemption. 
On the one side, redemption is necessary 
that the man may have his sins forgiven, 
and his moral nature healed, and com- 
munion with God restored so that he may 
reach his sublime personal destiny. On 
the other side, redemption is necessary 
that "a new race may be made out of the 
disrupted members of the old Adamic 
race." Tfie redemption in Christ exactly 



172 Personal Salvation 

covers this double necessity. We have 
seen in our study of the rescue how the 
sinner is forgiven and restored to com- 
munion with God, and how God has 
healed and renewed his injured moral 
nature. The adoption into God's family 
meets the second necessity for redemp- 
tion. God is seeking to make of sinful 
men holy men, and to mold these saved 
men into a race, a brotherhood. The 
method of redemption is such that in res- 
cuing the individual God is also securing 
the brotherhood. This will appear as the 
discussion proceeds. This new race or 
brotherhood is organized about the Lord 
Jesus Christ. He is the Center, the Head. 
He stands for the race, and in a certain 
sense he is the race. He is the head, we 
are the members. He is the controlling 
mind and heart and will, we are instru- 
ments for his service. He is the vine, we 
are the branches. In order that Christ 
might have this vital relation to the race 
it was necessary for him to become a 



Adoption 173 

member of it. This is the fundamental 
truth of the incarnation. The Son of 
God took on himself human nature, and 
became a member of that race, to the end 
that he might organize it about himself. 
In a very real sense Christ while upon 
earth was the new race and brotherhood 
all by himself. He lived, obeyed, suf- 
fered, as a member of the race and for it. 
Now with Christ as the Center, the Head 
of the race, the new spiritual organism is 
begun. The aim is to get men to join 
themselves to Christ and submit them- 
selves to him that he may make them 
members of his body and organize them 
about himself. This union with Christ is 
secured by faith. Faitfi is a bond of al- 
legiance, a vital bond which really makes 
the man a member of Christ just as the 
branch is a member of the vine. Thus, 
as soon as a man accepts Christ by faith, 
he becomes a member of the new race 
which is being organized about Christ. 

The new birth does not make a man a 
12 



174 Personal Salvation 

member of the brotherhood. The union 
with Christ, the submission to him, makes 
the man a child of God, a member of the 
new race. That the man may be a worthy 
member he must be holy and reach his 
highest personal destiny. The new birth 
is necessary to holiness. A sinner is jus- 
tified because he is joined to Christ. A 
sinner is regenerated because he is joined 
to Christ. A lost man becomes a member 
of God's family because he is joined to 
Christ. Thus, in securing holy men, God 
is securing the holy brotherhood. 

God is striving with men, seeking to 
get them one by one to accept Christ and 
become members of the great brother- 
hood. Every man must make the de- 
cision for himself. Those who reject 
Christ not only do not obtain member- 
ship in the new race, they lose all racial 
connections. The person who cares only 
for self, who will not submit to God and 
join with others in love and fellowship, 
by the process of physical death is cut off 



. Adoption 175 

from all of his kind and is flung out into 
the awful loneliness of personal isolation. 

To the new brotherhood God stands in 
the relation of Father. The entrance of 
sin made it necessary for God to assume 
for a while the attitude of a Ruler, but 
when the disturbance is entirely over- 
come God will return to his first and best 
relation of Father. Jesus is ever trying 
to teach us that God is our Father, and 
ever trying to teach us the filial spirit. 

Growing out of this new relation to 
the family of God there are two closely 
related experiences which will be dis- 
cussed under the heads of "Christian Fel- 
lowship" and "Christian Assurance." 



176 Personal Salvation 



CHAPTER XVII 
CHRISTIAN FELLOWSHIP 

THE relation of love and fellowship 
which obtains among all those who are 
true Christians is seldom treated as a part 
of Christian experience or as an element 
of personal salvation. But the fact is that 
this feeling is often the strongest and 
most real experience that comes to the 
new convert. We have seen that every 
one who accepts Christ becomes at once a 
member of the great brotherhood of the 
family of God. This adoption into God's 
family brings with it a true spirit of 
brotherly love which seizes hold of all 
other members and holds them in a keen 
personal interest. It is comparatively 
seldom that the experiences of repentance 
and faith are as vivid and well defined as 
in the ideal case which has been described. 
As a natural result of ignorance in spir- 



Christian Fellowship 177 

itual things, and for other legitimate rea- 
sons, a conversion may have all the ele- 
ments of a true rescue, according to the 
outline, and still be very vague and in- 
definite to the convert himself. In many 
cases the sinner would not be able to find 
his way through at all without a helping 
hand. Just here is seen the practical value 
of the Christian community, with its 
power of brotherhood and fellowship. 
The members of this brotherhood are al- 
ways seeking to persuade men to accept 
Christ and become members of the family. 
As soon as a sinner begins to show an in- 
terest in salvation, and to seek after it, the 
brotherhood gathered about feel a great 
love for him and a peculiar interest in his 
particular case. The spirit of love and 
fellowship is felt by everyone within its 
reach, and is especially felt by the seeker 
after Christ. The Christian community 
in a very real sense identifies itself with 
the seeker and imparts its strength to 
him, and on the wings of prayer and faith 



178 Personal Salvation 

helps to bear him over to safe ground. 
How often in great revival meetings, and 
often in lesser meetings, has a sinner been 
helped and quickened by the love and 
sympathy of the church. The faith of 
the brotherhood increases and quickens 
the faith of the individual, and makes it 
clear and definite. Thus, while the expe- 
rience of acceptance with God may at first 
be very weak and vague, the experience of 
the personal love and fellowship of the 
great brotherhood may be very strong 
and clear. In any case there is among 
those who love the Lord Jesus a spirit of 
fellowship which amounts to a real and 
definite experience. The weaker mem- 
bers are held by the strong in a spirit of 
watchful love, and their growth in grace 
and in the development of all Christian 
virtues is greatly increased by this spirit. 
Humanly speaking, many a convert 
would be lost to the church if it were 
not for the care and guidance of the 
brotherhood. 



Christian Fellowship 179 

The social instinct which is deeply 
implanted in human nature is not only 
greatly emphasized and quickened by the 
Christian experience, but it is also fully 
met and satisfied in the Christian com- 
munity. "The purpose is to have in the 
church a community where each person 
can get the profoundest fellowship in 
service and life. Modern socialism is not 
a vagary entire; it is based on a deep 
thing in man. Socialism is but a genuine 
hunger eating the wrong food. The real 
food is in the ideal of the Christian 
Church. Men think they want, as one 
has expressed it, the government to hold 
an umbrella over every man's head. They 
think they want a community of goods, 
but they really want a community of 
hearts. Let every man be sure that every 
other man would give his life to help him, 
and he is utterly satisfied. The way out 
of the modern peril is to bring back the 
Christian Church to the ideal of brother- 
hood in Christ our Lord. The Christian 



180 Personal Salvation 

religion completes man's life in a wonder- 
ful way. The personal moral process is 
completed by the Christian faith, but 
when it is completed all the personal iso- 
lation has disappeared. The one indi- 
vidual is saved, but not alone; he is saved 
by others and with others and for others. 
His own personal life is perfected; but he 
is left, at last, in vital, self-sacrificing re- 
lations with a mighty, organic brother- 
hood, a great multitude that no man can 
number." 

The basis of this new relation lies in 
the fact that when man is joined to Christ 
he becomes a member of God's family and 
God sends the spirit of his own Son into 
his heart, so that he feels toward God and 
toward man exactly as God's own Son 
feels. The indwelling Jesus is "the tie 
that binds our hearts in Christian love." 

When one Christian meets another they 
meet as members of the family of God. It 
matters not how diverse their outward 
circumstances, nor of what nationality or 



Christian Fellowship 181 

language they may be; the image of 
Christ in one recognizes the image of 
Christ in the other. "They laugh into 
each other's eyes," and hearts and faces 
glow with the glory of eternal fellowship. 
When the Wesleyan Methodist churches 
of Germany were made an organic part 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church the 
delegates to the conference for union were 
addressed by our own Bishop Goodsell. 
Speaking of their subjection to a Church 
of another land and another tongue, he 
said, "Do I seem like a foreigner to you?" 
Immediately those Germans sprang to 
their feet and, crowding around the 
bishop and throwing their arms about 
him, they cried, "Mein Bruder, mein 
Bruder !" Fellowship is a real dement of 
Christian experience. 

The Christian has a real and vital fel- 
lowship with Christ as a result of the 
union by faith, but it is not a part of the 
present plan to discuss that phase of ex- 
perience. The fellowship of the Christian 



182 Personal Salvation 

community has been introduced because 
in the first place it is a real experience, 
and in the second place it has a vital 
bearing on the doctrine of Christian 
assurance. 



Christian Assurance 183 



CHAPTER XVIII 
CHRISTIAN ASSURANCE 

IT is very important for each person to 
know whether or not at this present mo- 
ment he is a member of God's family. 
There can be no satisfactory Christian life 
if there is vagueness at this point. If a 
man has valid assurance that he is a mem- 
ber of God's family he can be assured con- 
cerning all the other elements of his ex- 
perience. The Holy Scriptures teach that 
there are two witnesses to the fact of 
adoption into God's family. These two 
witnesses are the man himself and the 
Holy Spirit. "The Spirit itself beareth 
witness with our spirit that we are the 
children of God." 

i. A converted man can be assured 
that he is a child of God by a logical in- 
ference from the facts furnished by his 
new life. The new life of union with 



184 Personal Salvation 

Christ has certain marks that distinguish 
it from the old life of sin. If these marks 
are present the man is living the Christian 
life and is a child of God. John says that 
"We know that we have passed from 
death unto life, because we love the 
brethren." Since the members of God's 
family have a profound love for one an- 
other, a man may be assured that he is one 
of the family if he has the family feeling 
and enjoys the family fellowship. Again, 
in the same chapter, John says that 
"Whosoever is born of God doth not 
commit sin." If a man finds himself with 
a conscious power over sin and a love for 
righteousness that he has not previously 
felt he may reasonably infer that he has 
been born of God. In the Epistle to the 
Galatians Paul says that "the fruit of the 
Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, 
gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, 
temperance." If a man finds these virtues 
present in his life he may logically infer 
that the Spirit dwelleth in him, and there- 



Christian Assurance 185 

fore that he is one of God's children. The 
Christian life furnishes the facts for its 
own identification. But this self-assur- 
ance is not of itself entirely satisfactory. 
The trouble is that it is likely to be weak 
or to fail altogether just at the time when 
most needed. In a time of great sorrow 
and affliction, or of very severe pain or 
temptation, when all the faculties of mind 
and soul are strained and weak, the man 
has neither the disposition nor the ability 
to examine his life and satisfy himself 
with inferences therefrom. He needs 
something more solid and substantial, 
something sure and unfailing, something 
that is not disturbed by his own moods 
and frailties. In such a time is felt the 
need of the Comforter, whose good pleas- 
ure it is to dwell in the heart and bear 
witness to the truth. 

2. "A converted man can be assured 
that he is a child of God by the direct in- 
fluence of the Holy Spirit witnessing with 
his spirit; that is, the Holy Spirit helps the 



186 Personal Salvation 

man to realize intuitively that God is his 
Father and that he is truly God's child." 

When the man joined himself to Christ 
God accepted him as a child and sent into 
his heart the Spirit of his own Son, and 
the man intuitively feels toward God as 
God's own Son feels. This intuition may 
be very weak at first, but in a time of 
need, or in direct answer to prayer for a 
witness, the Holy Spirit comes and takes 
up the feeble intuition and puts his own 
great strength into it, and the man knows, 
with a knowledge that cannot be shaken, 
that God is his Father. The Christians 
to whom Paul wrote, many of them con- 
verted from paganism, found themselves 
with a deep consciousness that God was 
their Father and that they were his chil-^ 
dren. Paul informs them that they came 
by that knowledge, and were able to say, 
"Abba, Father," by the direct influence of 
the Holy Spirit. The Christian may not 
know when nor how he came to con- 
sciousness or sonship, but he knows he 



Christian Assurance 187 

has it. In every hour of overwhelming 
affliction or temptation this deep con- 
sciousness of sonship in God's family 
abides strong and definite, as a rock be- 
neath the feet. It holds us steady until 
we can, gain a victory. This work of the 
Spirit brings the heavenly home into the 
human heart and makes loneliness and 
despair forever impossible. Anywhere in 
the universe the Christian is at home. He 
has a Father, a Brother, a great and hon- 
orable family. He can people any soli- 
tude with the forms of his beloved breth- 
ren, and on land or sea can lie down to 
rest in the arms of a loving Father. He 
is as certain of his Father as a bird is cer- 
tain of the air, because he has a knowl- 
edge not learned of the wisdom of men, 
but by the Spirit of God. 

This direct work of the Holy Spirit is 
the common privilege of all of God's chil- 
dren, regardless of training or circum- 
stances. Opportunities for Christian 
work and teaching add greatly to a man's 



188 Personal Salvation 

ability to examine his own life and com- 
pare it with the pattern set forth in the 
Scriptures. But the feeble and the most 
ignorant may have the witness of the 
Spirit in all its strength if they are closely 
joined to Christ by faith. 

The witness of the Spirit is known by 
its results. The work may be -so silent 
that we may know nothing of it, but as a 
result of that work we live and feel and 
think toward God as toward a Father. 
The witness often comes in answer to a 
direct prayer for the witness. In such 
cases it is likely to come at a definite 
time and with considerable clearness. It 
might easily be mistaken for a "second 
blessing." In any case, it comes at some 
time to all who have faith in Christ. 

Attention is called to the fact that the 
Spirit tells us that we are the sons of God; 
and not that we are forgiven, or regener- 
ated. Since we are the sons of God these 
things have taken place; but the Spirit 
bears witness to the adoption, since that is 



Christian Assurance 189 

the fundamental thing. The aim of all 
religion is to bring man into a proper re- 
lation to the holy God. In adoption that 
proper relation is secured and God tells us 
of it. That knowledge brings peace and 
eternal rest. 

Every Bible student must have stood 
often and long before that colossal state- 
ment by Paul : "I am not ashamed [con- 
fused, discomfited]; for I know whom I 
have believed, and am persuaded that he 
is able to keep that which I have com- 
mitted unto him." How did Paul's faith 
become knowledge? How may our faith 
become as sure as Paul's? We begin in 
earliest childhood with a dim idea of God, 
an intuition vague and beclouded, often 
but little more than a forgotten dream. 
It is a long journey from that beginning 
to Paul's confident "I know." After all, 
how does Paul know that he is not de- 
ceived? How can Paul distinguish his 
knowledge of God from an imagination 

which has deceived him into accepting it 
13 



190 Personal Salvation 

as a reality, or from an error truly be 1 - 
lieved? A man may be entirely certain 
that he knows something and still be in 
error. The writer well remembers a man 
who knew beyond all doubt that men 
have but eleven ribs on the left side and 
that the place where the twelfth rib ought 
to be is filled with pleura. Neither argu- 
ment nor evidence could shake him. He 
simply knew it, and he trusted that knowl- 
edge even against the evidence of his own 
eyes. How can I be sure that Paul's "I 
know" is not of the same kind? There 
are two thoughts which may help us to 
answer the question : 

i. The Christian man is certain of God 
and of the reality of his spiritual life be- 
cause he is personally satisfied with his 
trust. He began with a weak intuition of 
God. As his faith increased his intuition 
was cleared up. As he obeyed his con- 
science his moral nature took on new 
powers and God became more real to him. 
At last, when he found his whole moral 



Christian Assurance 191 

process completed by the Christian expe- 
rience, he also found that all the longings 
of his nature were satisfied. He has built 
on his belief in God a structure which has 
withstood every storm. He must be 
founded on a Rock. He has thrown him- 
self out upon his faith as an eagle flings 
himself into the air, and it has held him 
up. The young eagle believes he was 
made to fly; by and bj he knows it. The 
man believes he was made for God; by 
and by he knows it. A man may be ab- 
solutely certain of a thing and still be in 
error. The error will quickly appear the 
moment he attempts to put his false 
knowledge into practice. We all remem- 
ber the case of the tortoise that wanted to 
fly. A man might deceive himself into 
thinking he could walk on the water or 
fly from a mountain peak. He would 
speedily be convinced of his error if he 
should try to put his idea into practice. 
The Christian finds that his faith works 
well. More and more he trusts himself 



192 Personal Salvation 

to his faith, more and more he is satisfied 
with it. After a while he says with Paul, 
"I know." Experience has convinced him. 
He has drunk at a fountain whose waters 
have forever driven all thirst from his 
soul. For that reason he knows that he 
has found the fountain of eternal life. 

2. "The Christian man is not alone in 
this experience. He has a testing com- 
munity. At every turn of his thinking 
and feeling, in all the unfolding of his re- 
ligious consciousness, he is bounded by 
his brotherhood a peculiar company ; all 
passing through the same typical experi- 
ence; but this experience colored and mod- 
ified by difference in mental capacity and 
training. Thus a person reaches certainty 
with every conviction tested and confirmed 
by his Christian brethren. The supreme 
test of Christian truth is not that it can be 
demonstrated, like a problem in mathe- 
matics, but that it satisfies every man who 
lives the unselfish and glowing life of the 
brotherhood of redemption." 



Christian Assurance 193 

A chemist working in his laboratory 
takes upon himself the work of making 
an acorn. He has material at hand. He 
gets the size, the shape, the color, and the 
flavor. The product looks like an acorn. 
Some might be deceived into believing it 
to be an acorn. The wise man knows 
better. It will not grow and develop into 
a tree. The real thing has eluded him. 
The secret of life he has not found. 
Several elements professing to contain 
the secret have been sent him, but they all 
fail. But in a strange book he reads of a 
new element which seems to meet his 
need. He puts it into his acorn, and, lo, it 
begins to grow. He makes another. It 
grows also. He makes a thousand, they 
all grow. He makes other seeds. The 
new element imparts the same power to 
them. They grow at home, abroad, every- 
where, in any soil or any climate. He 
cannot prove that his products are alive, 
that he and all other men are not deceived 
by appearances. Nevertheless he is satis- 



194 Personal Salvation 

fied; he says, "I know I have found the 
secret of life." Men have been trying to 
make a life. They have failed, and are 
conscious of failure. A book appears say- 
ing that men are made alive by faith in 
God. Men test it and begin to live. They 
are satisfied. Others try it with the same 
result. It works everywhere, among all 
men. Finally they begin to say, with 
Paul, "I know whom I have believed." 
The result is more than knowledge; it is 
eternal life. 

Thus is reached the first Christian goal. 
The rebellious man has become a loyal 
citizen of the kingdom of God. The res- 
cue has passed into reconstruction. The 
man is loyal, God can make of him what 
he will. United to Christ, pardoned, for- 
given, regenerated, adopted into God's 
family, conscious of sonship and of fel- 
lowship with the brethren, having put 
on the whole armor of God, he is ready 
to start for the second goal, Christian 
holiness. 



Christian Holiness 195 



CHAPTER XIX 
CHRISTIAN HOLINESS 

THE aim of this chapter is to set forth 
in a clear and definite manner the mean- 
ing of the words and of the experience of 
Christian holiness. It is hoped that the 
words may be freed from some of the con- 
fusion which has gathered about them as 
a result of partial and artificial treatment. 
The word "holy" has in common usage 
different meanings. It sometimes means 
"set apart to the service or worship of 
God; sacred, reserved from common or 
profane use." In this sense it is nearly 
identical with "sanctified." Thus we 
speak of the holy temple, the Holy 
Scriptures, the holy Sabbath, the holy sac- 
rament, etc. In this sense it is proper to 
speak of the Christian at any stage of his 
experience as holy. The word "holy" is 
also used in a slightly different sense, 



196 Personal Salvation 

carrying the idea of being "clean, pure, 
free from sinful affections." Thus we 
speak of a holy love, a holy purpose. The 
motive of loyalty which a converted man 
has toward Christ is a holy motive. Since 
this motive is the greatest thing in the 
man's life, he may very properly be called 
a holy man if that particular meaning of 
the word be kept in mind when the word 
is used. But neither of these ideas is 
meant when the experience of Christian 
holiness is spoken of. The meaning there 
intended is "spiritually whole or sound." 
If this distinction is kept in mind much 
confusion as to the meaning of Christian 
holiness will disappear. Carelessness in 
the use of words is as sinful as any other 
form of moral looseness. As a prepara- 
tion for the discussion now before us the 
reader is referred to the chapter on "Re- 
generation." 

Regeneration is the beginning of holi- 
ness. Concerning it we observe: 

i. It is a work done by the Holy Spirit. 



Christian Holiness 197 

2. It is coincident with justification in 
point of time, and is secured by and re- 
lated to the same act of faith. 

3. The necessity for regeneration lies 
in the depravity of the human nature; 
that is, in the ruin wrought by sin. 

4. If regeneration meets this necessity 
it must impart or implant a life or a prin- 
ciple which will remove the depravity. 
The Holy Spirit secures this end by im- 
parting to the motive of loyalty to Christ 
a power which enables it to organize the 
whole life about itself and bring every 
motive into subjection to love for Christ, 
thus making the life organic, whole, holy. 

5. Regeneration is a complete and per- 
fect work done by the Holy Spirit, done 
once for all. It does not need doing over 
again. It does not need any retouching 
to make it perfect. But this does not 
mean, and cannot mean, that the work 
which regeneration is to do is completed 
when it is begun. By the very nature of 
the case regeneration cannot be the im- 



198 Personal Salvation 

partation of a new life and also the work 
which that new life is to do. 

6. The Holy Spirit will complete the 
work begun in regeneration as fast as the 
man gives him opportunity. 

With these facts in mind we are ready 
to discuss Christian holiness. 

"When regeneration is completed the 
result is perfection in the range of mo- 
tives. This perfection is secured by so 
filling the motive of love for Christ with 
power that love alone becomes the central 
motive, in place of the old complex motive 
of loyalty to Christ. This exchange of 
motives may take place gradually or sud- 
denly, but when the exchange is entirely 
made the man's inner spiritual life is com- 
pletely organic, because the central motive 
now for the first time constantly dom- 
inates all the smaller motives." 

As an enlargement of this statement the 
following points will be discussed: (i) 
The work to be done; (2) The method 
of doing it ; ( 3 ) The time required. 



Christian Holiness 199 

i. The work to be done. In what re- 
spect does a holy man differ from a 
regenerate man? 

The motive which constrains or impels 
a man who is joined to Christ in faith is a 
complex motive composed of love and 
duty. To this motive the Holy Spirit has 
given a peculiar life, enabling it to or- 
ganize the whole spiritual man about 
itself. Sometimes, for some reason, the 
love part of the motive becomes weak, and 
the man must depend upon a feeling of 
duty rather than of love. This is a very 
unsafe situation, for a neglected duty 
weakens the whole moral structure and 
starts the man back toward the pit from 
which he was rescued. "Love is the only 
motive which can be relied upon for effi- 
cient and sure action." This life of inter- 
mittent love and duty is not satisfactory 
to a truly Christian man. He wants the 
work completed. The Holy Spirit must 
come and take the love part of that motive 
and fill it with life and power. It at once 



200 Personal Salvation 

takes such entire control of the man that 
his one motive of action is love for Christ. 
When this motive of love for Christ is 
filled with life and power all opposing 
motives are subordinated, and everything 
within that man's range is brought into 
subjection to love for Christ. The whole 
nature is organized about this motive of 
love, and the man has become organic, 
whole, holy. In the range of motive the 
man is perfect. In every moral act he 
expresses his total self, and since that self 
is controlled by love for Christ his actions 
have the quality of moral purity. As a re- 
sult of being whole he is clean. He does 
not commit sin because all the motives 
that appeal to him are subordinated to his 
love for Christ. But these subordinate 
motives occasion many a test, and it is 
entirely possible for him to decide with 
one of them and thus commit sin. So 
long, however, as the love for Christ re- 
tains control the love of God is shed 
abroad in his heart by the Holy Spirit and 



Christian Holiness 201 

his whole life is full of righteousness and 
joy and peace. And yet the entire work 
of redemption is not completed. There 
is not yet perfection of knowledge or of 
conduct. These will come in due time. 
There is perfection in the realm of motive. 
That is all the perfection that is attained 
before death. 

Thus, while the blessing of holiness is 
a second work of grace, it is not a "second 
blessing" in the sense in which those 
words are so often used. The second 
blessing is not needed because of any im- 
perfection in the work of conversion, or 
because the man only asked for pardon. 
It does not make any difference what the 
man asked for. If he gave himself to 
Christ he was justified, regenerated, and 
adopted into God's family. The very per- 
fection of the first work made necessary 
the second work to complete it. When 
the second blessing is properly understood 
we claim for it the sanction of Scripture, 
of cpmrnon sense, and of experience. 



202 Personal Salvation 

The one word which correctly ex- 
presses this experience is "holiness." 
The use of any other word is the putting 
of a part for the whole, or of a result for 
the cause. As a result of the organiza- 
tion of the nature about the Lord Jesus 
Christ the powers of the soul are conse- 
crated to his service, are set apart to a 
sacred use, and this idea is correctly ex- 
pressed by the word "sanctification." The 
presence of motives to sin pollutes the 
whole moral life. When the reorganiza- 
tion of the nature forever cuts these out 
of the new man the result is "purity." 
The one great characteristic of the new 
life is that love rules supreme; hence the 
term "perfect love." 

It is almost needless to say that holiness 
is not "maturity," or "Christian perfec- 
tion," if anything more than perfection of 
motive is meant by those terms. There is 
abundant opportunity for a holy man to 
grow in grace. He will not attain per- 
fection until the resurrection. Neither is 



Christian Holiness 203 

Christian holiness identical with the bap- 
tism of the Holy Spirit, nor with the en- 
duement of power, as will be readily seen 
when once the nature of holiness is 
understood. 

2. The means by which Christian holi- 
ness is secured. 

1 i ) Love grows by expression. Every 
expression of love for Christ, by worship, 
meditation, testimony, Christian service, 
or sacrifice, reacts upon the love and in- 
creases its power and territory. 

(2) Every duty done reacts upon the 
whole motive and increases and develops 
the love. So a man may aid himself 
toward the goal. 

(3) The greatest and surest and quick- 
est method is by a direct work of the Holy 
Spirit, who can come all at once and fill 
the motive of love with such a power that 
the work is at once complete. The Holy 
Spirit must really do the work, whether it 
be fast or slow. The man secures this 
work of the Spirit by faith. As the Holy 



204 Personal Salvation 

.Spirit teaches the man he becomes con- 
scious of his need on the one hand, and 
more and more conscious of the power of 
Christ on the other. He is sorry for his 
depraved condition and takes a new hold 
upon Christ. This practically amounts to 
repentance for depravity and faith in 
Christ to remove it. The man could not 
become conscious of his need until regen- 
eration gave him a standard to measure 
himself by. He could not know Christ 
as he ought to know him until by faith he 
became loyal to him and became a mem- 
ber of the family. The preaching that 
will best promote holiness is that preach- 
ing which presents the Christ in all his 
attractive and lovely forms. If Christ is 
presented to the mind and heart he will 
himself create a hunger and thirst for 
righteousness. "The true preaching of 
the Gospel is to preach Christ, but the 
fashion of the day has been instead of 
this to attempt to convert by insisting on 
conversion" (Newman). He might well 



Christian Holiness 205 

have added that the way to secure holi- 
ness is to preach Christ rather than to in- 
sist upon holiness. Every sermon that 
exalts the Lord Jesus Christ is a sermon 
for the promotion of holiness. 

By a life of faith in Christ and of active 
service for him the Holy Spirit is given 
opportunity to complete the work begun 
in regeneration. If in regeneration a life 
is imparted holiness is secured by the 
growth of that life, whether it be fast or 
slow. But that growth is not at all iden- 
tical with or like the so-called "growth in 
grace." 

3. The time required. 

Life is measured not by time, but by 
depth and intensity. A man sometimes 
lives more in five minutes than in the five 
preceding years. 

"We live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not 

breaths ; 

In feelings, not in figures on a dial. 
We should count time by heart-throbs. He most 

lives 

Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best." 
14 



206 Personal Salvation 

Character is formed not by time, but 
by strength of purpose and intensity of 
thought and feeling. So much depth of 
purpose, so much strength and intensity 
of faith, will secure the reorganization 
and reconstruction of the soul about the 
Christ. If enough knowledge and faith 
are present at time of conversion to secure 
the needed pressure the work can be com- 
pleted at once, or in five minutes. Or it 
may take five months or five years. It is 
a question of faith and consecration, and 
not of time. It is not a mechanical work, 
but a living, vital process wrought out by 
the united effort of the man and the Holy 
Spirit. In some cases the work is done 
gradually, in others suddenly. In either 
case the result is the same. A definite 
quantity of water will slake a definite 
amount of lime. If the water is all put 
on at once there is a great commotion and 
the work is done. If the water is put on 
a drop at a time, or if the lime is exposed 
to the moisture of the air, the same result 



Christian Holiness 207 

will be accomplished, but a much longer 
time is required. The quicker way, how- 
ever, is generally the better. 

Thus at some time before death the 
Christian reaches the second goal of the 
Christian life. He has not exhausted the 
riches of grace nor the result of redemp- 
tion. The center of his life has been fixed; 
in God's own time the circumference will 
also be definitely drawn. 

The most serious objection; that has 
been brought against holiness as a "sec- 
ond" attainment is that it divides Chris- 
tians into classes. If this objection were 
valid it would condemn the theory, but 
where a division exists it is caused not by 
the theory but the ignorance of those who 
hold it and those who oppose it. The 
Christian Church is a family with chil- 
dren of all ages and all stages of develop- 
ment. No properly governed family was 
ever divided by the attainments of any of 
its members. The Christian community 
consists of some who are in process of en- 



208 Personal Salvation 

lightenment and awakening, and some of 
fixed character and ripened powers, and 
of others in all the intermediate stages. 
They stand as a unit about the Lord 
Jesus, and nothing that increases love and 
consecration to him can divide the family. 
The doctrine of holiness here set forth 
will not cause division, but rather be a 
band of strength. Anything which causes 
a division in the church family may well 
be looked upon witH suspicion. 

Another objects, "Can a man be a 
Christian and at the same time be un- 
holy?" That depends on what he means 
by the word "unholy." If he means that 
the man's life is still unorganized, and 
that love for Christ does not yet at every 
moment reign supreme, then the man is 
"unholy." If he means that the man is 
wicked, full of sin and rebellion against 
God, the man is not unholy. He is a 
friend of God, has the spirit of God 
within him, and is doing his best to please 
God. A building in the process of con- 



Christian Holiness 209 

struction is not a house, neither is it a pile 
of unrelated lumber; it is under the in- 
fluence of a guiding, controlling plan. It 
will be a house when it is done. Why 
quarrel about words when the facts are so 
apparent and simple? 

It matters not by what name it is called, 
there is an experience in which the life 
becomes fixed about the Lord Jesus and as 
a result love reigns supreme and all mo- 
tives to sin disappear. If the attempt to 
explain that experience is not satisfactory 
the experience itself is. 

"Jesus, thine all-victorious love 

Shed in my heart abroad: 
Then shall my feet no longer rove, 

Rooted and fixed in God. 

"O that in me the sacred fire 

Might now begin to glow, 
Burn up the dross of base desire 

And make the mountains flow! 

"O that it now from heaven might fall, 

And all my sins consume! 
Come, Holy Ghost, for thee I call ; 

Spirit of burning, come! 



210 Personal Salvation 

"Refining fire, go through my heart; 

Illuminate my soul; 
Scatter thy life through every part, 
And sanctify the whole. 

"My steadfast soul, from falling free, 
Shall then no longer move, 

While Christ is all the world to me, 
And all my heart is love." 



Rescued for Service 211 



CHAPTER XX 
RESCUED FOR SERVICE 

IT is very probable that there are some 
who will raise the objection that this 
treatment of redemption pays too much 
attention to the individual and not enough 
to society. It is hard for one man to see 
all sides of the truth, and especially hard 
to hold facts and events and experiences 
in their proper relation. Very recently 
The Pilgrim's Progress was severely 
criticised because of its personal element, 
and the claim was made that it fostered 
self-pride and self-consciousness and spir- 
itual narrowness. The same authority 
has also assured us that it is a matter of 
small moment whether we are individual- 
ly virtuous or sinful. Our great work is 
"to think about others." It is well to re- 
member that the first and the greatest 



212 Personal Salvation 

service which a man can render his fel- 
lows is to be absolutely clean and sound 
himself. Personal virtue gives to service 
an abiding and truly helpful quality ut- 
terly unknown to the mere generosity 
which always thinks of others first. The 
man who decides to serve men as a healer 
of disease can best render that service, 
not by going at once at it, but by first giv- 
ing himself long years of personal prepa- 
ration. For many years he works, 
training and developing his powers. 
Other years he spends in directing His 
trained powers to the study of medicine. 
He can best serve men by developing him- 
self. So the Christian rescue begins witfi 
the one man. The individual is the point 
of attack and the real element of power. 
Christianity prepares men for the highest 
and noblest and completest service by pre- 
paring the man. This is an individual 
task which it is folly to ignore. The first 
and best service which Bunyan's Chris- 
tian could render to the City of Destruc- 



Rescued for Service 213 

tion was to get out of the city and stay 
out. Christianity does not ignore or 
belittle the importance of the individual, 
but forever insists on personal holiness. 
The one man is never swallowed up in the 
great multitude of God's family. "He 
knoweth his sheep by name." Each man 
must make a definite personal contribu- 
tion to the final consummation, and his 
first and last task is to hold fast to his 
individual personality, that he may have 
somewhat to give. 

But, while Christianity rescues and de- 
velops the individual as though he were 
the only man, it rescues and develops him 
for the kingdom and not for himself. The 
personal aim is to prepare a perfect Chris- 
tian character, but that is not the end. 
The character is a preparation for service. 
The one duty of the Christian is to serve 
God and man with all his ransomed pow- 
ers. That is the great calling whereunto 
we are called. That makes us like God, 
who thought it not a thing to be prized to 



214 Personal Salvation 

sit in all the solitary dignity of majestic 
and eternal holiness, but who . emptied 
himself, pouring out all his powers, into 
the universe and upori man in one long 
and perfect service. It is God's delight to 
give, and give, and give. He is the great 
Helper, the great Servant, the great 
Burden Bearer of the universe. The 
Christian is to be like him, holy in char- 
acter, as a preparation for service. If 
there were absolutely nothing in existence 
except God his character would be a mat- 
ter of small consequence. But, since God 
will work and do things, since he made 
man and will not let him alone, it is of 
the greatest importance that God be ab- 
solutely holy. Just so, since the Christian 
is a member of society, his personal virtue 
is a matter of the greatest importance. 
Character alone makes true service. 
"Thus trie personal moral process is com- 
pleted by the Christian faith, but when it 
is completed all personal isolation has dis- 
appeared. The one individual is saved, 



Rescued for Service 215 

but not alone; he is saved by others, and 
with others, and for others. His own per- 
sonal life is perfected, but he is left at last 
in vital, self-sacrificing relations with a 
mighty organic brotherhood." The great 
law of life, here and hereafter, is the law 
of service. "A Christian is God's knight- 
errant in the earth, sworn to purity in 
heart and purpose and to fealty to society 
and to the common weal of all the world." 
The Christian religion alone furnishes 
the power and the motives for such serv- 
ice. The goal of the individual is 
service. Service is also the goal of re- 
deemed society. 

"I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no 
man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, 
and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, 
and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, 
and palms in their hands; and cried with a loud 
voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sitteth 
upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, . . . And 
one of the elders answered, saying unto me, 
What are these which are arrayed in white robes? 
and whence came they? And I said unto him, 



216 Personal Salvation 

Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are 
they which came out of great tribulation, and 
have washed their robes, and made them white 
in the blood of the Lamb. Therefore are they 
before the throne of God, and SERVE him day and 
night in his temple." 



761 

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Beside the wain topic this Book also treats of 
Subject No. On page Subject No. On page 



L I G H T 



ON THE 



PATHWAY OF HOLINESS. 



J ! 
BY REV. If D; M'CABE, D.D. 



-**- 



NEW YORK: 
CARLTON & LANAHAN 

SAN FEANCISCO: E. THOMAS. 
CINCINNATI: HITCHCOCK & 

1871. 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by 

CAKLTON & LANAEAN, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



PREFACE. 



entering, some years since, upon a re- 
examination of the difficult subject of Holi- 
ness, I found that all the light which I had 
previously received, whether from reading, 
instruction, or meditation, was inadequate 
to the demands of my own reason, and 
also to answer the numerous inquiries 
propounded to me by my discriminating 
pupils. Unsatisfied and wearied with all 
that I had ever seen or heard in explana- 
tion of its unexplained mysteries, I sat 
down, not to reading and collating, but to 
patient and prayerful thought. I soon 
discovered, as it seemed to me, a new line 



4 Preface. 

of light through all the darkness and in- 
tricacy of the subject. That line of light 
and truth I pursued until I reached a full 
and luminous understanding of all the 
difficulties which present themselves to 
the candid student upon the subject of 
salvation from sin. In the views I thus 
obtained I still feel great confidence, and 
now rest in them with ineffable satisfac- 
tion. I read the results of my investiga- 
tions to two great men, eminent servants 
of the Church : each exclaimed, " It is all 
new, and why it is not all true I cannot 
now see." Those gentlemen, and many 
others, requested me to publish my expli- 
cation of that which had never been satis- 
factorily explained. Having consented to 
yield to their request, I now very sincerely 
and very humbly hope that what I have 
written may be useful to the Church of 



Preface. 5 

Grod, which he purchased with his blood. 
To one who is spiritually wise, usefulness 
transcends all other considerations, and 
eliminates from the soul the taint of self- 
seeking. And now, if any one desire to 
know the precise change which is wrought 
in the soul in the work of regeneration ; 
just what is then done and what is left 
undone; why no more is accomplished; 
why no greater or more thorough moral 
cleansing is effected ; what is the true defi- 
nition of regeneration ; what, definitely, is 
sanctification ; what the generic distinc- 
tion between regeneration and sanctifica- 
tion; how great the heresy that teaches 
that sanctification can be attained simply 
through gradual growth; how imminent 
the danger of apostasy to all the merely 
justified ; how absolute the necessity that 
Christian 3 be sinless; how those dying in 



6 Preface. 

a state of justification, but without the wit- 
ness of sanctification, can be. saved; and 
how many other mysteries in the processes 
of the purification of a fallen human soul 
may be unfolded I very modestly think 
he can find in the following pages satis- 
factory responses. But if a patient and 
candid perusal of these pages do not af- 
ford satisfying solutions of these great and 

i 

most interesting problems, I am persuaded 
that it must be attended with suggestions 
that must amply reward the reader for 
all his time and effort. And if I have 
spoken the truth as it is in Jesus, may He 
make it an inestimable blessing to all who 
will patiently, thoughtfully, and devoutly 
read ! 

OHIO WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY, 

Delaware, Ohio. 



LIGHT 



THE PATHWAY OF HOLINESS. 



1. MAN possesses one faculty which is 
not under the law of cause and effect: 
which is not fettered by any other faculty, 
or controlled by any other agency, human 
or divine. Under the provisions of the 
Gospel the Will is perfectly free. 

The will is a fountain of causation. It 
is in man a fountain of finite causation as 
truly as God's will is a fountain of infinite 
causation. Our perceptivities, receptivi- 
ties, and sensibilities are, in their opera- 
tions, the occasions but not the causes of 
our volitions. 



8 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

The will is the executive of the other 
faculties. That we may be happy, our 
will must choose the right, the reasonable, 
the proper, and the worthy. The will 
can depress us to the depths of degrada- 
tion and ruin, if it choose to place the 
affections on objects unworthy of their 
devotion. If it choose the wrong, or be 
restrained from choosing the right, or be 
constrained by overpowering surroundings, 
or by the subtle influence of evil spirits, to 
do what is wicked, harmony among our 
sensibilities cannot be preserved, nor that 
character be achieved which would be a 
source of inward gratification. 

2. Man is made accountable both to 
himself and to his Creator. To himself, in 
order that he may enjoy the high rewards 
of self-respect ; and to his Creator, that he 
may enjoy the rewards which the Creator 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness 9 

promises to loyalty. But God could not 
make a being justly accountable who is not 
a free agent. It would be unjust to call 
any being to an account whose will is not 
free and causative. 

If an accountable being is not rewarded 
for obedience and punished for disobe- 
dience, there is no significancy in account- 
ability. Therefore an accountable being 
must be placed in a state of trial. He 
must be subjected to trial in order to test 
his loyalty to truth, right, conscience, and 
the will of God. If he is to be rewarded 
or punished, he must be tested in order ibo 
furnish evidence of merit or of demerit. 
He must be tested in order, also, to develop 
a capacity to enjoy the rewards promised 
to obedience. These prime ends ; indis- 
pensable to an accountable being can be 
secured in no other way. 



io Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

The test may vary in kind and in de- 
gree. In fact, few human beings are tested 
precisely alike. But it is required of each 
that he endure a trial sufficient to evince 
loyalty, merit, and a capacity, to enjoy the 
rewards of self-respect and of heaven. A 
person who is incapable of such a test can- 
not be accountable. He who endures such 
a test successfully, compasses the great ends 
of his creation. 

A trial of obedience requires that there 
should be difficulties in obeying. If a 
moral agent is to be rewarded for obedi- 
ence, it must be because it is difficult to 
obey. If punishment is denounced against 
disobedience, it must be because it is easy 
to disobey. Obedience is indispensable to 
reward; but an obedience which requires 
no effort, no self-denial, cannot merit a re- 
ward. Resistance to evil is indispensable 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 1 1 

to reward; but that resistance cannot be 
meritorious, unless it be easy to yield to 
the solicitations of evil. For virtue to 
merit a reward, requires that it should be 
difficult to be virtuous, and easy to be 
vicious. A trial of one's loyalty to God 
requires that loyalty should have its dif- 
ficulties, and disloyalty its attractions. 
Without these difficulties on the one hand, 
and these attractions on the other, there 
could be no valid test; none adequate to 
secure the necessary ends of probation. 
Without them a test would be a mere pre- 
tense, a sham trial, devoid of results and 
of significance. 

3. To those sinless beings to whom all 
things seem as they really are, vice can 
have no attractions. Vice can have no 
objective attractions none^^r se. On the 
contrary, all its attractions must be wholly 



1 2 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

subjective in their character, and must be 
wholly dependent, in gaining access to the 
soul, on the perceptive and receptive facul- 
ties and the sensibilities. To the essence 
of the soul to that substratum in which 
all its powers inhere vice can present no 
attractions. For in the essence of an un- 
fallen soul there is no predisposition to 
commit sin. Grod did not, could not, put 
into it any sinful tendency. All its innate 
tendencies and appetences are holy.* It 
is consequently averse to, loathes, all sin, 
all unholiness. If, therefore, it were possi- 
ble for sin to address its attractions or so- 
licitations directly to this essence, they 

* True, there exists in such a soul a possibility of sin- 
ning, for such a possibility is indispensable to account- 
ability. There also exists a susceptibility of sin, for 
such susceptibility is indispensable to a possibility of 
sinning. But these do not constitute sinful tendency. 
They are entirely compatible with perfect holiness. 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 1 3 

would be rejected and spurned instantane- 
ously. They would be rejected with all 
that decisiveness and certainty which char- 
acterize the* worMngs of the great law 
of cause and effect. But this instinctive 
promptness in rejecting the solicitations of 
sin thus addressed to the soul would pre- 
clude the possibility of an adequate trial. 
In such a case, the difficulties of obedience 
and the attractions of sin would be insuf- 
ficient for that purpose. It is not, there- 
fore, to the essence of the soul that the 
test of obedience and loyalty could be 
addressed. Neither could it be addressed 
to the will, for there is nothing in the 
will upon which the attractions of sin could 
directly act. 

But, on the other hand, in the sensibili- 
ties, and in the perceptive and receptive 
faculties, we find a capacity to be addressed 



14 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

by the attractions of sin, and also all the 
conditions requisite for an adequate test 
of the soul's loyalty to Grod. 

The sensibilities are not capable of self- 
regulation, but move as they are moved 
upon. Nevertheless, they manifestly exert 
a great influence upon the operations of 
the intellect ancl upon the decisions of the 
will. 

If, therefore, the normal action of the 
emotions, the propensities, the desires, the 
affections, be once materially disturbed by 
the solicitations or attractions of sin; if, 
by such influence, these innocent sensibili- 
ties be unduly intensified and urged into 
self-gratification beyond the limits of pro- 
priety and the claims of holiness ; if even 
one sensibility be thus disproportionately 
intensified and indulged, or if an inferior 
sensibility be brought to exert an undue 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 1 5 

influence over, and finally to control, a 
superior one the way would be prepared 
for a permanent derangement in tne opera- 
tions of the sensibilities for a permanent 
interference with their proper and holy 
exercise. Such abnormal action once be- 
gun in the sensibilities might be followed 
by erroneous perceptions and false reason- 
ings, and might also be sanctioned and en- 
forced by the decisions of the will. Thus 
moral evil might secure an effectual and 
permanent lodgment in the soul. Mani- 
festly the attractions of sin, directed with 
a view to this disastrous and far-reaching 
result, would be directed not to induce, at 
the first, the performance of an act wicked 
in itself, but rather such action or condi- 
tion of the sensibilities, and such erroneous 
perceptions, as might with the greatest 
probability be followed by wrong volitions. 



1 6 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

4. From the very limitations of a pro- 
bationary being limitations in thought, 
knowledge, experience, and observation 
misapprehensions would be likely to arise ; 
misapprehensions, for example, as to the 
pleasures or benefits to be derived from a 
proposed gratification, as to the turpitude 
of an act suggested and contemplated, as 
to the extent of his obligation to the Crea- 
tor, as to the certainty and intensity of the 
evils to result from a deflection from duty, 
as to the extent of the effects of those evils 
upon himself, and as to the difficulties to 
be overcome in securing a restoration to 
holiness or to the forfeited favor of God. 
Such misapprehensions could not be pre- 
vented, we think, except by illuminations 
from a higher intelligence. 

But, in order to secure to a probation- 
ary being a test adequate to satisfy the 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 17 

essential conditions of accountability, sin 
or fallen spirits must also be permitted to 
exercise upon his mind such blinding and 
deceiving influences as would make obedi- 
ence difficult and disobedience easy. Hence 
misapprehensions, as well as misleading 
desires, might be originated and fostered 
from without. And we may be sure that, 
whatever their cause or source, they would 
furnish favorable opportunities for sin to 
exert its fascinations, its blinding and de- 
ceptive influences, upon the mind. 

But might not God give to probationary 
beings such illuminations as, if they did 
not prevent all misapprehensions, would 
with entire certainty guard against any 
pernicious consequences from them? We 
think not. 

In the government of accountable beings 
it must be provided with scrupulous exact- 

2 



1 8 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

ness that their wills should be entirely un- 
trannneled. The essential conditions of 
freedom must in no way be disturbed. 
The blinding and deceiving influences of 
sin or of fallen spirits must not be beyond 
the capacity of each moral agent to endure ; 
since, if they were so, it would be unjust 
to arraign and punish him for yielding in 
the hour of trial. Yet they must be strong 
enough to furnish an adequate test. Take 
these influences away, and no such test 
could be secured. Without them, there 
could be no value or propriety in any sys- 
tem of probation anywhere in Jehovah's 
dominions. 

For the same reason, there must be 
limitations to the knowledge, to the illu- 
minations, possessed by the probationary 
agent. Had Gfod more fully illumined the 
mind of Eve could she, with a clearer and 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 19 

"broader vision, have seen the consequences 
of her contemplated siii could she have 
seen virtue in all its attractions promptly 
she would have rejected the fascinations 
spread out before her eyes, those addressed 
to her instinctive love of beauty, knowledge, 
and power, and those whispered in her ear 
by a malignant but wily foe. But under 
such excess of knowledge her decision, her 
choice of obedience, would have been no 
evidence of loyalty, and no reason why 
she should be rewarded. From that choice 
there could have resulted no higher excel- 
lence of soul, no progress toward the great 
ends of probation. For the realization of 
such ends she needed to be placed where, 
in order to show her loyalty, she must re- 
sist unholy influences, maintain harmony 
and purity in her affections, stand trust- 
fully and obediently amid the darkness of 



2O Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

misapprehensions, and in triumph pass the 
assaults of- temptation. The attractions 
of vice needed to be strong enough to af- 
ford her an adequate test, but not in the 
least to exceed her capacities of endurance, 
or in the least to control her choice. Nor 
did they. 

5. Notwithstanding all the attractions 
of vice, all its blinding and deceptive in- 
fluences, without the consent and choice 
of her will they could not have disturbed 
the proper action of the sensibilities of her 
soul. However strong the temptations 
which assailed her, they would have been 
harmless but for the consent of her will. 
It was in the free but wrong exercise of 
this faculty that her demerit consisted. 
When her will chose to yield to an im- 
proper and abnormal exercise and impulse 
of her sensibilities, a moral disturbance 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 21 

was at once produced among those sensi- 
bilities a disturbance which broke down 
the harmony and unsettled the relations 
which God had instituted between them, 
and which finally perverted and reversed 
the whole action of the moral sensibilities 
of the soul. And when this disturbance 
of the sensibilities was effected, moral dis- 
order, a depraved state, a condition of sin- 
fulness, passed down into the essence of the 
soul. Then the state, the condition, and 
character of the soul became essentially 
sinful. In this way moral evil was intro- 
duced into the soul and into the universe. 

This is my solution of this great prob- 
lem of the ages. For myself, I see in it no 
indistinctness; nothing untrustworthy or 
unsatisfactory. Those favored with clearer 
vision may; and if so, I would with joy 
wait at their feet for instruction. 



22 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

Having thus enunciated my views in 
relation to the introduction of moral evil 
into the essence of the soul, I desire now 
to explain the process, as I understand it, 
by which this state of sinfulness' may be 
thoroughly removed. 

The soul once fallen and depraved 
through a deliberate choice of sin, is un- 
able to atone for its violation of a holy 
law. It is destitute of that recuperative 
power by which it could exchange its state 
of sinfulness for its former state of holiness. 
If its present depraved condition and char- 
acter be ever removed, it must be by the 
interposition of mercy and omnipotence. 
It is hopelessly lost unless illumination, 
power, and impulse be communicated to it 
by God himself. 

In virtue of the atonement Grod can 
come into the soul" thus depraved and im- 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 23 

potent, without doing any violence to the 
principle of justice. He can impart to it 
the needed information, impress on it its 
lost condition, convince it of the Divine 
existence and of its own accountability, 
and awaken its apprehensions of future 
punishment. He can quicken its sensi- 
bilities, arouse the conscience, and com- 
municate power to the will by which it 
may again become unconstrained and un- 
restrained in its choice and action. But 
justice forbids that these things should be 
done to a degree which would in the least 
interfere with its free agency. God may 
give it only that degree of aid by which, 
in the exercise of its own free will, it can 
begin a life of obedience; that degree of 
aid which will render its continuance in 
wickedness without excuse. 

Doubtless God could, in the exercise of 



24 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

his omnipotence, overwhelm a sinner with 
such visions of the invisible world and the 
agonies of the lost of the hazards and the 
enemies which beset his way that there 
would be no such thing as the untram- 
meled exercise of his will. But, as we 
have already seen, to qualify a moral agent 
for the rewards of self-respect and for the 
Divine approval, he must demonstrate his 
loyalty to conscience and to the Divine 
government by his unconstrained choice 
of the right, and of obedience to God. 
Hence, the information, impulse, and power 
imparted to him must be sufficient to afford 
him a fair opportunity to prove his loyalty, 
and yet not sufficient to interfere with his 
freedom. If more is imparted than is suffi- 
cient for bestowing such an opportunity, 
all merit in the choices of the will is there- 
by destroyed, and the achievement of that 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 25 

character prevented which could either 
merit or enjoy reward. A choice under 
such circumstances would be a constrained 
one, and not such as would evince to the 
intelligent universe any inward rectitude 
of nature, or any worthiness of character. 
Rewards are promised in consideration of 
continued loyalty to righteousness in those 
trials in which it is difficult to be virtu- 
ous and easy to be vicious. Faithfulness 
in hazardous trials is the only adequate 
evidence of personal merit or of inward 
worthiness. On the other hand, it would 
be unjust to hold a sinner accountable 
if the temptations which are permitted 
to assail him are beyond his strength to 
resist and overcome. Satan, if unrestrained, 
we may believe, could so excite in him 
wicked thoughts and feelings, so overwhelm 
him with diabolical influences, and array 



26 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

before him sinful gratifications with such 
fascinating charms, that the calm freedom 
required for deliberate choice would be 
utterly impossible. 

In order, then, to show a record and a 
character that will entitle a man to reward 
on the ground of desert, he must not have 
too visibly before him either the rewards 
of obedience or the consequences of dis- 
obedience. Impressions too powerful, at- 
tractions too strong, obligations too deeply 
felt, or dangers too visibly seen, would so 
influence volition as to preclude the possi- 
bility of an adequate trial. The will must 
be left to choose under circumstances and 
in view of motives which will evince and 
improve the moral nature of the soul. 

Now, if a sinner, upon the reception of a 
divine illumination and impulse sufficient, 
and only sufficient, to arouse a soul dead 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 27 

in trespasses and in sins, does bestir him- 
self, does resolve to escape the wrath to 
comCj he soon reaches that point where he 
sees the necessity of forsaking all sins. 
The moment he fully resolves to give up 
and break away from all sin, God imparts 
to him the power of saving faith. Up to 
this point in his experience his faith in 
Jesus Christ is an historical faith ; and such 
a faith, while it may change one's views or 
opinions, cannot change his relations to 
God, nor change his moral character. No 
faith can do this except that appropriating 
faith which is the gift of God. This is 
" the faith, and the only faith, by which the 
righteous maintain their spiritual life. 
Whenever the sinner is ready to forsake, and 
does forsake, his sins, God bestows on him 
this new power of appropriating faith. It 
would be useless to bestow it before, for 



28 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

Christ cannot save a soul from its sins 
while it is clinging to them. And if the 
seeker of salvation refuses to exercise his 
will-power sufficiently to break off his sins, 
he cannot exercise the greater will-power 
to believe on Jesus unto justification. 
This divinely-bestowed power, by which a 
truly repentant soul can trust in the merits 
of Jesus Christ for pardon, is varied in 
degree, is graduated according to the ne- 
cessities of each individual seeker, so that 
in the exercise of faith there shall be no 
interference with his freedom. In order to 
secure perfect freedom to the will one per- 
son may need more of this power than an- 
other. God might so impart to the seeker 
of salvation this supernatural power, or so 
impel his soul to exercise the power to be- 
lieve, to rely, to trust, that his will would 
have little or no freedom in the act of 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 29 

faith in the work of his justification. 
But this would be a departure from the 
fundamental principles of the economy of 
grace. Sufficient of this power to believe 
to the saving of the soul must be given, 
to leave him who continues in unbelief 
without excuse. More than this would vio- 
late his freedom, would interfere with his 
power of contrary choice. And now, if 

* 

the seeker, at this point, does exercise this 
power of saving faith thus divinely be- 
stowed, God freely justifies him, removes 
from his conscience its load of guilt, and he 
is thus introduced into the glorious state 
of justification unto life. 

But it would be useless to pardon his 
past sins without at the same time bestow- 
ing upon the believer the one now be- 
lieving power sufficient to keep himself 
from deliberate sinning in all the future. 



.30 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

Otherwise he would fall into sin as soon 
as he was justified. Therefore at the mo- 
ment of Ms pardon, of his justification, 
God does by the power and operation of 
the Holy Spirit invigorate all Ms moral 
faculties. And this wort, which God 
performs in the soul concomitant with 
justification, has been universally termed 
regeneration. 

The precise change thus wrought in the 
soul at the time of justification, and called 
by all theologians regeneration, has never 
been satisfactorily stated and defined. Nay, 
all theological writers who have discussed 
the subject, including Wesley, Watson, and 
John Fletcher, have left it an unexplained 
mystery ; and hence on tbis point the mind 
of the Church has never been at rest. 
" Every effort that I have made," says Dr. 
B>. S. Foster, in his recent excellent work 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 31. 

on Christian Purity, "to define clearly to 
my own mind precisely what is meant by 
sin in believers, has deepened the convic- 
tion that the subject is one of manifold 
difficulty, and about which there is great 
confusedness of thought. I find evidences 
of obscurity in all the writings about it. 
The most eminent divines are not clear. 
They all agree in the fact ; but when they 
attempt to explain they become confused. 
The difficulty is to make plain what that 
sin is, from which Christian men are not 
free; which remains in, -or is found still 
cleaving to believers : how to discriminate 
between the some sin that is removed in 
regeneration, and the some sin that re- 
mains. And it is just around this point 
that revolves the whole question of entire 
sanctification, both as to what it is, and its 
possibility. Sanctification has to do with 



_32 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

that sin which remains; it removes that 
remainder of sin. Regeneration took some 
sin away; sanctification takes away what 
was left. How important that the subject 
be made clear! The desideratum is clear 
discrimination, so as to know what we 
mean by the some that is taken away and 
the some that is left. We must beg the 
patience of the reader while we attempt to 
sift this point somewhat more critically 
than usual. Possibly it belongs to that 
class of occult subjects which refuse to be 
brought into the categories of clear thought. 
When those who have written upon this 
subject have attempted an explanation of 
the precise point, they have seemed like 
men groping in the dark. It will no doubt 
be impossible, after the utmost effort, to 
clear the subject of all difficulty, but we 
are not without hope that by careful pains- 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 33 

taking and great patience some approach 
may be made to a solution, sufficient, at 
least, to evoke the efforts of other minds 
who may bring the subject to completion." 

The difficulties so strikingly presented 
by Dr. Foster had for years presented them- 
selves to my mind ; and before I saw his 
work I had wrought out a theory which, 
to my own mind, not only obviates these 
great difficulties, but exhibits the nature 
and the relations to each other of justifica- 
tion, regeneration, and sanctification. 

When Grod justifies a seeker of salvation 
he pardons all his sins, changes all his 
moral relations to himself, and all his 
moral relations to the universe. He an- 
nounces to him the blessed fact of his for- 
giveness, translates him from the kingdom 
of darkness into that of his Son, lifts upon 
him the glorious light of his reconciled 

3 



34 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

countenance, adopts Mm into his family, 
and gives the Holy Spirit to bear witness 
with his spirit that he is a child of God. 
He fills him with joy on account of his de- 
liverance from condemnation on account 
of his disburdened conscience. He lights 
up in his soul the deep and blessed con- 
sciousness of the Divine favor and presence. 
He opens upon him the smiling heavens, 
beaming with love, welcome, and approval. 
But in addition to all this light, peace, 
and joy, springing out of these new rela- 
tions and new revelations, God introduces 
into his moral faculties a new vigor by 
which he is fully able to hold under con- 
trol all his sinful tendencies and tempers 
springing up out of that depravity which 
still characterizes the essence of the soul, 
and by which he is also able to overcome 
all the temptations of demoniacal foes. God 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 35 

hangs new lamps through his intellect, 
imparts to him new spiritual perceptions, 
and new discernments of the presence of 
moral evil and of the devices of the wicked 
one. God opens new breadth to his wis- 
dom, puts new quickness, tenderness, and 
control into his conscience, new order and 
fervor into his affections, new intensities 
into all his good sensibilities, and new 
energy into his will. He opens within 
him the new life the eternal life. Before 
justification God awakens fear in the soul 
of the seeker. And this fear inspires many 
desires that lead the soul toward, obedience 
and trust in God. But in the work of re- 
generation he invigorates all the originally 
implanted powers, desires, affections, and 
propensities. * To each he gives an incipi- 
ent new order and harmony, tending to a 
final and complete readjustment, in which 



36 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

each shall have its due relation, and its 
proper and holy exercise. Love to God, 
to man, to truth, to holiness, were among 
the original affections; and upon these 
dead affections God breathes the breath 
of life in the work of regeneration. 

But in all the great and glorious things 
that are done in justification and regenera- 
tion, not a single inbred, sinful tendency 
is removed from the essence of the soul.* 
Every such tendency remains in the nature 
or essence of the soul after the great work 

*Hererwe must note the distinction that exists be- 
tween the essence and tine faculties of the soul. A faculty 
is a -way of the soul's acting ; and the soul has as many 
faculties as it has distinct ways of acting. We have 
memory, imagination, reason, affection ; but they are not 
the immaterial unity called the mind or soul. This is 
an immaterial essence or substratum without which there 
could be no faculties. And that this essence of the soul 
is depraved we have proof in the fact that the faculties 
are depraved. 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. . 37 

of regeneration has been wrought. Name 
all the inbred sins catalogued by divines, or 
by inspiration, or by consciousness, and the 
consciousness of each reader will tell him 
that not one of these has been removed in 
regeneration. Do not pride, unbelief, aver- 
sion to holy duties, irreverence, envy, jeal- 
ousy, anger, ambition, impatience, love of 
the world, selfishness, and an unwillingness 
to make sacrifices for the welfare of others, 
besides other forms of sin, all without ex- 
ception remain in the soul after regen- 
eration? Universal Christian experience 
answers in the affirmative. They remain, 
too, in their undiminished vigor, though 
relatively weakened by the new vigor and 
activity God communicates to the moral 
faculties. 

We must distinguish between changes 
in the action, adjustment, and energy of 



38 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

the faculties, and changes wrought in the 
essence or substratum of the soul. It is in 
this essence, and not in the action of the 
faculties, that we locate the character of 
the -soul. In every finite soul the action 
of the faculties may be imperfect in many 
respects, and yet its moral character be 
sinless. "If you were blind," said Jesus 
to the Pharisees, " you would have no sin." 
Depravity entered the soul through a 
permitted disturbance in the moral action 
of the faculties. The degree of this dis- 
turbance was such as to involve sin and 
immorality. By means of this permitted 
disturbance in the harmony of the affec- 
tions sin passed through the sensibilities 
and the will, through the faculties, down 
into the essence of the soul, and changed 
the character of that essence. It had been 
holy; it now became unholy, depraved. 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 39 

The first step, therefore, in the restoration 
of a soul to the lost image of God to its 
original holiness is to convince it of its 
moral condition ; the second, to bring it to 
evangelical repentance ; the third, to secure 
a change in all its moral relations ; the 
fourth, a change in the strength, in the ac- 
tivities, tendencies, and inclinations of the 
faculties ; the fifth and last, a complete and 
fundamental change in the essence itself of 
the soul. 

The new invigorating influence which is 
communicated to the faculties in the work 
of regeneration is indispensable to enable 
the soul to maintain its state of justifica- 
tion. But God does this work of invigor- 
ating the faculties only up to that degree 
which will leave the soul perfectly free to 
work out its salvation, and yet not to 
that degree which would interfere with its 



40 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

free agency. In the work of regenerating 
the soul God might have so renewed and 
purified it that ever afterward all sin would 
be shockingly repulsive, and all sugges- 
tions to sin exceedingly offensive. He 
might make the substance of the soul of 
the seeker more holy than that of Adam, 
than that of any of the departed saints, or 
of the angels who stand in his presence. 
But if he were to do that, how could 
temptation in any way test the loyalty 
of the will, or test the soul's deliberate 
preference of the right its strength of 
faith, its willingness to endure trial unto 
the end of its probation, its trust under 
limitations of knowledge and misapprehen- 
sions, and its power to hold fast to God? 
The soul must needs pass valiantly through 
all such experiences before the believer can 
attain the priceless excellency of a clean 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 41 

heart, and achieve for himself the splendor 
of a sanctified character. Such a perfection 
of the work of holiness, if wrought in re- 
generation, would conflict with free agency, 
and defeat all the great purposes of a 
probationary state. The regenerated soul 
must exercise its free agency in making 
use of the divine help and grace already 
imparted, and in struggling with the in- 
born depravity still remaining, and in ex- 
periencing the full, cleansing efficacy of the 
blood of the Lamb. Great and precious, 
unspeakably important, as the work of re- 
generation confessedly is, it is only half 
the work Jesus came to perform. "The 
regenerated man," says Bishop Hedding, 
" finds in himself pride, anger, envy, malice, 
and rejoicing over the calamities of an en- 
emy." "The regenerated have remaining 
impurity," says Dr. Dempster. Richard 



"42 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

Watson says, "Former corruptions remain 
in the regenerated soul, and strive hard , 
for the mastery." "We deny," says Mr. 
John Wesley, "that the regenerated are 
delivered from the being of sin. The love 
of sin remains in the soul after its regen- 
eration." "The carnal mind," says Dr. 
R. S. Foster, " survives the work of regen- 
eration, and is often activelv rebellious in 

7 */ 

the hearts of real Christians." St. Paul, in 
describing believers, says : " The flesh Inst- 
eth against the Spirit, and these are con- 
trary the one to the other." " For ye are 
yet carnal : for whereas there is among yon 
envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye 
not carnal?" And again, after saying to 
the Corinthian Christians, "Ye are the 
temple of the living (rod," he adds, almost 
immediately, the exhortation : " Dearly be- 
loved, let us cleanse ourselves from all 



Light on, the Pathway of Holiness. 43 

filthiness of the flesh and spirit." Yet, not- 
withstanding all such testimonies and au- 
thorities Christians theologians and others 
generally agree that regeneration and 
sanctification are the same in kind, differ- 
ing only in degree. This seems to me to 
be a fundamental error. And to this error 
I attribute the acknowledged darkness 
which pervades the Church on the great 
doctrine of sauctification a doctrine of 
transcendent importance. The nature of 
regeneration has not been clearly perceived, 
and, consequently, has not been accurately 
defined. 

Regeneration is such an invigorator of 
the moral faculties as will enable the justi- 
fied soul to hold under complete subjection 
all its sinful tendencies and overcome all 
outward temptations, and thus escape the 
necessity of sinning against God. It was 



44 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

the design of the Redeemer not only to 
change all the moral relations of the soul, 
and to put moral vigor into all its facul- 
ties, by which it could hold under control 
all its sinful tendencies, triumph over all 
inward sins and outward foes, and main- 
tain itself in the favor of God; but also to 
save it from all its inbred depravity, to 
cleanse it thoroughly from all its moral 
defilements, to exchange its state of sinful- 
ness for one of sinless holiness. After re- 
generation, there is another moral state of 
the soul in which it not only can control 
all the stirrings of moral evil within, and 
hold in complete check all the advances of 
spiritual foes, but can also loathe sin, per- 
ceive its first approaches, hear its slightest 
whisper, feel its most concealed presence, 
and yet constantly and instantaneously 
reject all its unhallowed proposals, and 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 45 

invariably crush the risings of all sinful 
desires. When the soul reaches this state 
of moral purity it dreads sin, is pained at 
its approach, feels no inbred affinity for it, 
and hence it can dismiss all its allure- 
ments with a promptness that gives no 
place to the devil. Such a change is 
wrought in the essence of the soul that it 
rejects temptations, in some degree, by 
means of its inwrought aversion to all 
moral impurity. Temptation may induce 
a movement among its innocent sensibili- 
ties, but it no longer has an affinity for 
vice as vice. Yet after being made holy, 
the soul must be tempted in order to test 
its loyalty to holiness. The blinding and 
fascinating influences of sin are still per- 
mitted, and must be permitted, to exert 
their power upon the sanctified soul, in 
order to secure the great ends of an ade- 



46 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

quate trial. But no tongue can properly 
express the advantages that one wholly 
purified by the blood of Jesus has, in con- 
tending with the attractions of sin, over 
one that is living in a state of justification 
only. He feels his obligations more strong- 
ly, sees his privileges more distinctly, and 
is more fully under the influence of divine 
truth. The motives to faithfulness are 
more clearly apprehended ; his willingness 
to endure temptation and the loss of all 
things is greater; his self-denial is easier; 
his faith stronger, grander ; his joy fuller ; 
and his power to prevail before the throne 
more perfect. When a soul reaches this 
state, it takes no delight in sin, however at- 
tractive. Beneath all its fascinations it sees, 
with a heaven-lit eye, deception and death. 
They may be dismissed from the front with 
a single " Get thee behind me, Satan." 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 47 

The soul haying been justified and re- 
generated, and maintaining the state of 
justification, retaining the witness of the 
Holy Spirit attesting its acceptance, God 
now convicts it of inbred sin, and the ne- 
cessity of its complete removal. First, 
there came a conviction of its ruined, help- 
less state ; then, a conviction of the neces- 
sity of forgiveness and of a change of all 
its moral relations: now there comes a 
conviction of the corruption of the heart. 
Mr. John Wesley says, " After justification 
God uncovers to the soul the inbred mon- 
ster's face." 

The motives which God presents to the 
sinner before his justification, in view of 
which he expects the sinner to act, seem 
to me to center in the man himself. But 
the motives which he presents to the re- 
generated, in urging the necessity of holi- 



48 Light- on the Pathway of Holiness. 

ness, all center in God. The view which 
the one seeking pardon takes of the atone- 
ment differs widely from that which is 
taken by the justified believer. Before 
justification it is the guilt-atoning, the 
pardoning power, that fills his eye; but 
subsequently to justification it is the all- 
cleansing efficacy of that atoning blood that 
broadens before his mind, and fills the whole 
horizon of his soul with joy, and gratitude, 
and hope. In the one case faith appre- 
hends Jesus Christ as one perfectly able 
and willing to pardon ; in the other, it ap- 
prehends him as able and willing to cleanse 
from all sin, to save unto the uttermost. 
Antecedent to justification there was a 
willingness to forsake sin all sinful prac- 
tices ; so, antecedent to sanctification there 
must be a willingness to be made morally 
clean to be cleansed and saved from all 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 49 

* 

unrighteousness. As it was through a free 
exercise of the will that the virus of de- 
pravity passed down into the essence of 
the soul, so when once incorporated in that 
essence it can be removed only by the 
choice of the same faculty. It must be 
removed, if removed at all, without <$$>- 
turbing or abating the soul's freedom, for 
on that freedom depends all that makes 
existence to accountable beings either de- 
sirable or glorious. 

The removal of this inbred corruption 
has been generally denominated sancti- 
fication. This is the full salvation, the 
cleansing from all sin. To every- justified, 
regenerated, soul, God says, " Be thou holy." 
On this point Mr. John Wesley says that 
the soul is convicted of inbred sin by a 
conviction far deeper and clearer than that 

experienced before its justification. Even 

4 



50 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

those ministers who deny the possibility 
of sanctification in this life admit that the 
soul's convictions for sin are much more 
pungent and heart-searching after *con ver- 
sion or regeneration than before it. But 
as the soul, in order to obtain pardon and 
adoption into the family of God must re- 
nounce the world and self; must forsake 
all sins ; must resolve to be the Lord's, and 
to serve Him forever ; the question may 
arise, Why does not Grod at the moment 
of justification thoroughly cleanse the soul, 
instead of simply renewing its faculties? 
The answer is ready. The seeker of par- 
don is not seeking to be cleansed from 
all inbred sinfulness to be spiritually 
cleansed is not the point he is aiming at. 
That is not the burden, the necessity, then 
pressing upon his soul. But his guilfc and 
danger ; a sense of the divine displeasure ; 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 5 1 

a horror of great darkness ; a fearful look- 
ing for of judgment ; the fiendish assaults 
of diabolical spiiits; the fearful struggles 
of his own will in the inward revolutions 
going on in his soul during the great work 
of repentance; the withdrawal of his affec- 
tions from idolized objects; the precious 
boon of forgiveness that looms up before 
him as a single star in a whole sky of 
blackness and tempest ; his hope of escap- 
ing from the fiery indignation that shall 
devour the adversaries of Grod these, these 
are the chapters of ideas that fill and en- 
gross his mind, shutting out every other 
consideration. In all such experiences as 
these, the proper and efficient motive is 
fear. For fear is one of the proper mo- 
tives and lawful grounds of moral action. 
"Fear," says Dr. Cocker, "is the first emo- 
tional element of all religion." The Saviour, 



52 Light on the Pathway of Holiness, 

in addressing sinners, often appeals to this 
motive: "How can ye escape the damna- 
tion of hell?" "Fear Him who, after he 
hath killed, hath power to cast into hell: 
yea, I say unto you, fear Him." "If ye 
believe not that I am He. ye shall die in 
your sins." "They that have done evil 
(shall come forth) unto the resurrection of 
damnation." We thus see that repentance 
actuated by fear is acceptable to God. In- 
deed, the sinner cannot love God until he 
feels that God loves him, that his anger is 
turned away from him ; and this he cannot 
know until he receives the witness of for- 
giveness. He cannot, therefore, act in view 
of those motives which center in God. 
The holiness of God, the reasonableness of 
his law, the moral welfare of the universe, 
and the ineffable charms of virtue, are 
wholly ineffectual to move him. He can- 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 53 

not act from a love of holiness, because he 
does not and cannot love holiness. And 
we may say that up to the point of justifi- 
cation he is incapable of acting from any 
motive that does not center in himself. 
And all the motives that center in self, 
and from which the seeker of salvation 
could act, may be summed up in the ge- 
neric motive, fear : fear of evil, of loss, of 
ruin, of punishment. Fear being a legiti- 
mate ground of action, and the unjustified 
man being incapable of acting in view of 
higher controlling motives, God graciously 
accepts his service when actuated by that 
single inferior motive. But as soon as the 
soul is justified and regenerated, it is then 
capable of acting from higher motives. 
And therefore from the moment of its 
adoption into the family of God, duty re- 
quires that its great controlling motive in 



54 Light on the Pathway of Holiness'. 

the service of God should be love love 
for God, for holiness, for the kingdom of 
righteousness, and for all mankind. If a 
soul in seeking salvation from inbred de- 
pravity be actuated by a slavish fear of 
punishment, or by a desire of personal 

aggrandizement, and regards only in a 



secondary degree those higher motives and 
considerations which center in God's holy 
nature and character, that soul must fail 
to illustrate unmistakably its genuine and 
proper loyalty to virtue, to the highest 
welfare of the intelligent universe, and to 
God. To seek sanctification without prime 
reference to rectitude, justice, and holiness, 
which are involved in the divine require- 
ments and indispensable in God's moral 
government, could not be acceptable to 
God. The only prime motive in seeking 
deliverance from the remains of the carnal 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 55 

mind which God honors or will honor is a 
love of moral purity, a longing for holi- 
ness, a desire to be created anew in Christ 
Jesus. . But when the soul is groaning 
under guilt and seeking for pardon, it is 
not in love with holiness; it is not longing 
for, or pressing hard affcer, nor even think- 
ing of, holiness. 

Holiness is not what its faith is now 
claiming is not now within the sphere of 
its faith. Hence if a soul, at the moment 
of its justification and regeneration, were 
to be saved unto the uttermost sanctified, 
in the sense in which we are now using 
that term it would not be a salvation 
through faith; for salvation by faith re- 
quires that the specific needs of the soul 
be met in answer to its specific faith. 
" According to your faith be it unto you," 
said Jesus. But a pleading and a be- 



56 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

lieving for pardon are not a pleading and 
a believing for full salvation from all in- 
bred corruption. God will not do for a 
soul actuated by fear, . by those motives 
that center in self, any more than is neces- 
sary to enable it to work out for itself 

* 

righteousness and true holiness. And so 
soon as the believer is capable of acting 
from a higher motive God requires him to 
do so. Love is the strongest of all the 
motives that influence the justified. 

As in seeking justification the faith of 
the seeker does not embrace sanctification 
as regeneration and sanctification are so 
separate and different in their nature and 
as the motive by which the seeker of the 
one of these two great blessings is so un- 
like that which actuates the seeker of the 
other we may well affirm that justifica- 
tion and sanctification never occur at the 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 5 7 

same moment. In narrating the experi- 
ence of some one, Mr. Wesley remarks, 

" From the very time of her justification 
she clearly saw the necessity of being 
wholly sanctified, and she felt an unspeak- 
able hunger and thirst after the full image 
of God; and in the year 1772 God an- 
swered her desire. The second change was 
wrought in as strong and distinct a man- 
ner as the first had been." Speaking of 
another person, he says, "She had been 
clearly justified long before, but said the 
change she experienced was extremely dif- 
ferent from what she experienced then ; as 
different as the noonday light from that 
of daybreak: that she now felt her soul 
all love, and quite overwhelmed in God." 
Mr. Wesley continues, " Another says, she 
has enjoyed the love of God nine years, 
but felt as great a difference between that 



58 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

state and the state she is in now as if her 
soul were taken to heaven." Speaking of 
the anti-evangelical clergy of his day, he 
says, " They speak of justification either as 
the same thing with sanctification, or as 
something consequent upon it. I believe 
justification to be wholly distinct from 
sanctification, and necessarily antecedent 
to it." "All who enjoy sanctification assert 
that they sought it as a distinct blessing." 
"It is an instantaneous work, and its wit- 
ness is a clear and distinct witness from 
the witness of justification." And who, I 
would ask, ever heard of any one reaching 
the witness of sanctification by growth ? 

In seeking adoption into the divine 
family, the will of the seeker was called 
upon to endure as much, to struggle with 
as much, and to overcome as much, as it 
could possibly. To have required more, 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 59 

or to have put greater tension upon it, 
would have been unjust, and would have 
interfered with the conditions of freedom. 
In seeking the cleansing of the soul there 
is a new and higher work for faith, a new 
and higher work for the will. Sanctifica- 
tion requires just as much effort of the will 
as the will can put forth. As the will was 
energized in the work of regeneration, it 
can now put forth a greater effort than be- 
fore. God therefore requires it not to re- 
ceive his grace in vain, but to use its new 
power of self-determination. As sin first 
entered into the soul and corrupted it 
through the sensibilities and the will, so 
now it must be removed, if removed at all, 
from the nature of the soul with the co- 
operation of all the faculties, and especially 
with the full consent and determination 
of the will. But such mental action being 



.60 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

beyond the capability of a depraved sou], 
the Holy Spirit proffers to remove the 
state of sinfolness all sinful tendencies 
from the soul, provided the will shall 
fully co-operate by willing it to be done, 
by exercising faith in the promise that it 
shall be done, and by relying on the 
cleansing efficacy of the atoning blood, 
in virtue of which alone it can be done. 
Without such a co-operation of the will it 
never can be done. But this co-operation 
of the will is now possible since new moral 
energy was given to the will in regenera- 
tion. The will now has the power to act, 
-and it must act most decisively and ener- 
getically. Unless it thus co-operates, there 
will be no adequate reliance, no adequate 
exercise of faith. Without the decision of 
the will to be holy, holiness can never be 
realized by any man. It is in the clear, 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 6 1 

untrammeled choice and decision to be 
holy, cost what it may, that the soul can 
evince its loyalty to holiness, and unfold a 
character which will be worthy of reward, 
and a nature capable of enjoying a reward 
divinely bestowed. This exercise of the 
will is not only distinct from that put 
forth by the seeker of pardon, antecedent 
to justification, but it is a much greater 
effort. Then the will decided to forego 
sinful indulgences ; but, in seeking full re- 
demption, the will is required to surrender 
itself. It is much easier to give up lying, 
cheating, swearing, or any common sin, than 
it is to surrender the will itself, and bind 
it to conform to and to acquiesce in the 
will of another forever. It is far easier to 
give up sinful pleasures, however attract- 
ive they may be. The mind which has 
become as God, knowing, determining for 



62 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

itself, good and evil which has assumed 
the prerogative of disposing of itself, and 
of determining duty and fundamental mo- 
rality for itself recoils from the thought 
of yielding without reserve its will to that 
of Jesus Christ: " After regeneration, 1 ' says 
Mr. Wesley, " and while the soul enjoys 
the witness of the Spirit attesting to its 
sonship, the will is. not wholly resigned to 
the will of God." When Jesus yielded his 
human will to the will of God, exclaiming, 
"If it be possible, let this cup pass from 
me : nevertheless, not as I will, but as thou 
wilt," his suiferings were most intense, and 
his character most glorious. The agony 
of that moment, when, notwithstanding the 
shame, the buffetiogs, the conflicts, and 
the unutterable sufferings impending, Jesus 
thus absolutely surrendered his human 
will to that of God, illumines with a divine 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 63 

light the process of sanctification the be- 
liever's experience of a full salvation. 

But suppose God should cleanse a soul 
from all its alienation to himself, and from 
all inbred depravity, without its own 
deliberate and undivided- choice of holi- 
ness without its exercising the faith that 
definitely claims the great blessing and 
without being actuated by those high and 
holy motives which center in God such 
an act would be a marked departure from 
that principle of his economy so uniformly 
observed, namely, never to do for an ac- 
countable being that which he can do for 
himself. Should God in that way work 
his transforming wonders, the soul would 
fail in the achievement of that excellence, 
that development of nature, and that ex- 
altation of character, which can only come 
through the free exercise of its own facul- 



64 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

ties. It could never receive the rewards 
of achieving, in a qualified sense, holiness 
for itself. The boon of a sanctified spirit, 
of a holy heart, if given under such cir- 
cumstances, could not be so highly prized 
by its possessor as it would be had that 
great blessing been clearly presented to 
his consideration, and his own co-operation, 
struggle, and choice, been required for its 
attainment. But impress the justified, re- 
generated soul with the dangers which it 
incurs from the inbred corruption remain- 
ing within, and of whose struggles for 
supremacy it is daily, hourly conscious 
show it that it must not give place to the 
devil for an instant that in order to pre- 
serve its liberty and the witness of its 
adoption it must be cleansed from all 
filthiness of the flesh and of the spirit- 
that it must be holy now, or continue in 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 65 

imminent danger of backsliding let the 
unspeakable advantages and blessedness 
of holiness be clearly seen, and, in fall 
view of all these solemn considerations let 
the choice be deliberately made to seek by 
self-denial and faith that spiritual purity, 
that complete salvation which the Gospel 
proffers then will that soul properly ap- 
preciate the blood-bought gift when in in- 
finite mercy it shall be bestowed, and then 
will that gift be most likely to be retained. 
But to one who does not feel intensely the 
need of sanctification God cannot give the 
power of sanctifying faith. God gives ca- 
pacities and opportunities for physical, 
mental, and material improvement, and 
then leaves men to avail themselves of 
them as they may choose. To secure phys- 
ical strength, health, and beauty to attain 
mental expansion and power, or mate- 

5 



66 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

rial comforts, deliberation, self-denial, and 
choice are all needed; and in like manner 
they are needed for the attainment of a clean 
heart. In regeneration God gives moral 
power, and requires it to be exercised and 
improved upon. And if this power be prop- 
erly exercised, he soon brings the soul into 
that high state of grace in which the flesh 
will no longer lust against the Spirit, nor' 
the Spirit against the flesh. But if this 
power be not exercised, it is gradually les- 
sened, and it is finally overcome by some 
of those sinful tempers and tendencies 
which, as we have said, remain in the soul 
after regeneration. Then the soul loses 
the witness of the Holy Spirit to its justi- 
fication and adoption. And we will here 
add, that for some cause or causes, and, we 
doubt not, to a very great degree for the 
want of clearer views of the nature of. re- 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 67 

generation, and of proper instruction on 
the subject of sanctification, the far great- 
er multitude of the converted neglect to 
go forward until some besetting sin over- 
masters them and they lose the evidence 
of their acceptance. And to-day the great 
body of Christian believers are living with- 
out the witness of the Holy Spirit with 
their spirit that they are the children of 
God. Surely, if not all, yet much of this 
terrible evil could be removed by proper 
teaching on the subject off holiness. 

Up to the point of regeneration it is 
pardon and deliverance from endless death 
that are presented to the soul for its ac- 
ceptance. Their bestowment is suspended 
upon its own. free choice and its exercise 
of a specific faith; that is, a faith having 
specific reference to those blessings. But 
after regeneration, it is freedom from all 



68 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

inbred sin, a foil salvation, winch is pre- 
sented to the soul for its acceptance. Why 
should pardon be presented to the soul 
for acceptance or rejection, and sanctifica- 
tion be wrought in the soul, without its 
enjoying the exalted privilege of accepting 
that gift, and of relying specifically upon 
the blood of atonement for it ? Christ pro- 
poses to destroy, in the regenerated soul, 
all the works of the wicked one to remove 
every disposition and feeling contrary to 
his own inind. But in doing this he must 
have the co-operation of the believer's 
choice, affection, faith, and service. With- 
out these he cannot perform the great 
work of cleansing. 

By holiness I mean that state of the 
soul in which all its alienation from God 
and all its aversion to a holy life are re- 
moved. In this state sin is odious. The 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 69 

more holy any soul, any being is, the more 
odious sin becomes. To a good man sin is 
odious ; to a holy man, it is more odious ; 
to an angel, it is far more so still; but to 
God sin must be, to us, inconceivably 
odious. And therefore it is said that the 
heavens are not clean in his sight, and that 
he charged his angels with folly so insig- 
nificant is their holiness when contrasted 
with the holiness of God. Holiness ad- 
mits of an infinite number of degrees ; and 
there is set before us an eternal progression 
in holiness. But that degree of it, or that 
state of the soul in which temptations to 
sin leave there no damaging moral influ- 
ence, no tarnish of sin, no pain in the 
conscience, no corruption of the will, no 
obscurity or perversion of the spiritual 
vision that state in which the all-effica- 
cious blood of Jesus has washed away all 



7O Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

the stains of sin, and in which the Holy 
Spirit constantly presides, rules, and reigns 
without a rival is what we call sanctifica- 
tion. Without this degree of holiness no 
man shall see the Lord. But a soul leav- 
ing the world possessed of this degree, of 
holiness is at once ushered into the awful 
presence of God. 

Justification is a change in the moral 
relations of the soul. Regeneration . is a 
change in the strength of all the moral 
faculties by the infusion of a new vitality. 
But sauctification is that change in the 
moral state of the soul whereby its inborn 
and acquired depravity is exchanged for a 
Heaven-imparted holiness, measuring up to 
the degree described in the preceding para- 
graph. Justification is an instantaneous 
work. When Grod pardons a sinner, he 
does not work at it for days in succession. 



Light on 'the Pathway of Holiness. 71 

He does not pardon a sin or two to-day, a 
few more to-morrow, and the others at 
some subsequent or indefinite future time. 
The conditions which will allow him to 
pardon one sin, will allow him to pardon 
all sins; and therefore when he grants a 
pardon, he pardons fully and thoroughly. 
So when he regenerates the faculties of 
the soul he does not accomplish the work 
by degrees. He does not illumine the 
reason and quicken conscience to-day, and 
wait until to-morrow to put new energy 
into the will. And it is precisely so with, 
sanctification. When in the work of sav- 
ing a soul Grod changes its moral nature, 
he does not. produce that change by de- 
grees. Sanctification is a single, simple, 
definite work wrought in the essence or 
substratum of the soul. It is not taking 
this sinful temper away, and then that 



72 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

one, one after another. It is not the dry- 
ing up now this poisonous stream, and 
then that poisonous stream. But it is the 
going directly to the fountain whence all 
those corrupt streams flow, and the saying, 
with a divine power, to that fountain, " Be 
pure, be holy." Sanctification is therefore 
an all-cleansing act. It is, so to speak, the 
finishing of the great work of Gospel salva- 
tion, which commenced with conviction of 
sin, and the prompting of the soul to flee 
the wrath to come. 

This degree of holiness, which we call 
sanctification, is to be reached only by 
faith in the merits of Christ. But the 
power or degree of faith to believe for this 
blessing is the immediate gift of God. But 
God never gives this power until the soul 
is willing to lose itself, as it were, as to all 
interests and purposes for time and eter- 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 73 

nity, in God; to find in him. wisdom, joy, 
peace, and rest; to find in Ms word and 
will the law for every thought, purpose, 
and emotion; in his glory the inspiration 
to every action and undertaking. Such 
comprehensive and far-reaching require- 
ments never occur to a soul, and are never 
required of a soul, seeking justification. It 
is a sense of guilt, helplessness, and danger 
that pervades and oppresses the soul then. 
And as on such a soul the power of justify- 
ing faith is never bestowed until it is will- 
ing to forsake all sins: so in like manner 
the power of sanctifying faith is never be- 
stowed until the desire for holiness is suffi- 
ciently intense and unwavering to make 
the soul comply with all the conditions 
upon which this great gift is bestowed, 
and also to appreciate it when it is be- 
stowed. Now it is at this precise point in 



74 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

the experience of the seeker that the great 
promise is given : " What things soever ye 
desire, when ye pray, believe that ye re- 
ceive them, and ye shall have them." To 
obtain complete salvation the soul must so 
urgently feel its need that nothing short 
of immediate restoration to moral sound- 
ness will satisfy it. When this desire is 
sufficiently strong and protracted, God im- 
parts the power of sanctifying faith; and 
then, if the seeker exercises this power of 
faith when he prays for sanctification, he 
receives that blessing. 

By failing to keep in view the precise 
character to which this promise is ad- 
dressed, many estimable people wholly mis- 
interpret it. As they present this promise, 
the belief itself of the seeker is made the 
consideration, in lieu of the blood of the 
atonement, in virtue of which the blessing 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 75 

sought is bestowed. This interpretation 
of the words, "Believe that ye receive 
them, and ye shall have them," makes the 
evidence of one's sanctification an intellect- 
ual process rather than a burning experi- 
ence of the soul. Hence said one distin- 
guished minister in my hearing, "I went 
round my circuit professing sanctification 
before I had the witness of it." But our 
salvation, in whole or in part, is by the 
blood of Christ. Regeneration is one part, 
sanctification is another part, each distinct 
from the other. As nothing in the uni- 
verse but the blood of Jesus Christ can 
save from the guilt of sin, so nothing but 
the same blood can save from inborn sin- 
falness. There is no other merit in con- 
sideration of which the Holy Spirit can 
work the wonders of purification. Trust- 
ing in that blood, our guilt vanishes away 



76 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

and is remembered no more; and the 
same blood atones for that depravity of 
the soul which inhered before it exercised 
one of its faculties, or committed a single 
sin. Trusting in that blood we are made 
holy. These are the great works which 
Jesus Christ came to do in the soul. When 
he pardons, when he regenerates, he does 
a wonderful work; but these are only a 
part of salvation. The work of salvation 
is not complete until all the sinful tenden- 
cies are removed from the soul. For we 
must clearly distinguish between a sinful 
tendency and a susceptibility to sin. With- 
out such a susceptibility, man could not be 
tested. This susceptibility may exist and 
yet the soul be perfectly sinless. But a sin- 
ful tendency is a proneness to sin an affin- 
ity for sin as sin. If the work of salvation 
stop with regeneration, all that has been 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 77 

done in the soul is useless, for after re- 
generation all the sinful tendencies remain 
in the soul. In the regenerated soul there 
is no actual fitness for the holiness of 
heaven. There is no fitness to live as be- 
cometh a redeemed being, and no safety 
from backsliding, until the inbred sinful- 
ness is taken from the soul itself. Unless 
Jesus Christ can remove all inhering in- 
clinations to sin, he came to do a work 
which he cannot do. If he cannot take 
away the carnality which remains after the 
soul's restoration to amicable relations to 
its Maker, he is deficient in the resources 
needed in a Redeemer of mankind. But 
what Christian will venture to doubt the 
value of Christ's merits to purchase moral 
purity, or the ability of the Holy Spirit to 
cleanse and thoroughly renew the soul? 
Jesus Christ either wishes to remove in- 



78 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 


dwelling depravity, or he does not. But 

what Christian would affirm or believe 
that he does not desire to remove unholi- 
ness from the soul of the believer ? If he 
does desire its removal if he has made 
that result possible, and proffers supernal 
aid by which it can be effected what is 
needed but the obedience, co-operation, 
and faith of the seeker himself? One spe- 
cial application of the blood of atonement 
was needed to secure pardon and the re- 
newal of the moral faculties : but a second 
application is needed to change the moral 
nature of the soul itself. And as the bless- 
ing of justification is to be sought uninter- 
ruptedly until the witness of pardon is 
vouchsafed, so the second great blessing 
is to be sought from the moment of justifi- 
cation until the Holy Spirit bears witness 
of its bestowal. The soul should give it- 



Light on the ^Pathway of Holiness. 79 

self no rest until the Holy Spirit and its 
own spirit unite in attestation that the 
great work of inward purity has been 
wrought. 

But as the trials sent by God for dis- 
cipline, and the temptations addressed to 
the soul by wicked spirits, must find in our 
susceptibilities something on which they 
can operate to put to the test our strength 
of moral excellence, or to disturb the nor- 
mal action and relation of our faculties, 
how is a sanctified man to know that the 
quivering he experiences among his sensi- 
bilities under these divinely-sent trials, or 
Satanic temptations, do not arise because 
there is some inborn depravity, some moral 
alienation, still inhering in his nature? 
God sends trials to test and strengthen the 
virtues, but he never allures men to com- 
mit sin. If there were no tempting Satan, 



8o Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

God would send trials sufficient to furnish 
the soul an adequate arena for testing its 
loyalty. But God allows Satan to tempt 
to evil those who are passing through their 
period of probation. Satan being wholly 
malignant, he cannot but desire that men 
should act wickedly. He therefore tempts 
men who are wicked, or are unsanctified, 
to do that which is positively wrong. He 
does this because in such men there exist 
strong affinities for sin which give imme- 
diate responses to such temptations. But 
those temptations which he addresses to 
sanctified souls are usually indirect. He 
aims to involve them in sin through an 
excessive action or indulgence of sensi- 
bilities in themselves innocent and proper. 
He aims to disturb the harmony of the 
lawful sensibilities; to get one sensibility 
to exert an undue influence over another; 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 81 

or a lesser obligation to override a greater 
the love of knowledge, for example, to in- 
terfere with the duty of visiting the huts 
of squalid poverty to relieve the distressed. 
Now such a temptation, and the conse- 
quent movement among the sensibilities, 
and the exertion of will required to preserve 
order among them, clearly do not in the 
least degree involve sin in the soul. The 
sanctified soul knows, just as Jesus knew, 
or as Adam before his fall knew, that a 
stirring among the sensibilities which has 
not yet swerved the will, or in the least 
degree gained its consent to sin, cannot be 
sinful. True, there may toe somewhat of 
unrest; peace may to some extent be dis- 
turbed by the sternness of the engagement ; 
but there cannot be a consciousness of sin 
or of sinftimess. Sin cannot enter the soul 
without the permission of the will ; but the 

6 



82 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

effort and struggle to enter are indispensa- 
ble, under our present conditions of being, 
to an adequate test of the soul's loyalty. 
But suppose a temptation be addressed 
directly to a sanctified man a temptation, 
for example, to indulge in a feeling posi- 
tively wicked. This temptation must be 
permitted to exert, or to present, certain 
blinding, deceiving, and fascinating influ- 
ences upon the innocent sensibilities of his 
soul. These influences are indispensable 
to an adequate trial of a soul in a sanctified 
state; and they are rendered possible be- 
cause of the soul's many misapprehensions, 
springing necessarily out of its limitations 
of knowledge, thought, feeling, and obser- 
vation. But these same blinding influ- 
ences were brought to bear upon the sensi- 
bilities of Adam before he yielded. Had 
his will resisted them, as it ought, they 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 83 

would plainly have been no evidence of a 
moral taint within his soul. But these 
fascinating influences of sin were also ad- 
dressed to, and experienced by, the sensi- 



bilities of the sinless man Jesus Christ. 
He was tempted in all points like as we 
are, yet without sin. 

The blinding and deceiving influences 
of wicked feelings, such as pride, malice, 

ambition, perverseness, and covetousness, 

* 

which are necessary to an adequate trial, 
have usually been regarded by theologians 
and others as clear evidence that the soul 
experiencing them cannot be sanctified. 
When wicked feelings are positively pre- 
sented to such a soul, the question to be 
asked is, "Is there in it any .affinity for, 
any responsive welcome to, those feelings ? " 
There must be a susceptibility of being 
moved by those wicked feelings, or there 



84 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

would be no use or meaning in the tempta- 
tion. Here, again, we need to distinguish 
between an innocent susceptibility of feel- 
ing and a sinful tendency or affinity for 
sin as sin. If there is in a soul only a sus- 
ceptibility of feeling, making it possible to 
sin, but no actual affinity for sin giving 
responsive welcome to sinful solicitations, 
a movement among the sensibilities conse- 
quent upon temptations to indulge in wick- 
ed feelings would be no evidence whatever 
of an unsanctified state. 

But is the sanctified soul conscious of 
any such affinity for sin? I answer un- 
hesitatingly that it is not, so soon as it is 
confirmed by habit in its state of sanctifica- 
tion. So soon as it is so confirmed, it is 
deeply pained at the obtrusive, offensive 
presence of a thought or a suggestion of 
sinning against God. In a sinful soul 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 85 

wicked feelings spring up spontaneously 
they are indigenous ; but they are injected, 
thrust into a sanctified soul, by diabolical 
spirits. Now if in the early experience of 
sanctification, when the soul is conscious 
of the incipient movements of wicked feel- 
ings, it should attempt to analyze those 
feelings, it will be almost impossible for it 
to decide whether they were self-originated 
or thrust in by evil, seducing spirits. Prob- 
ably thousands who have reached the state 
and the witness of entire sanctification 
have lost the blessing by not keeping this 
thought before them. After receiving a 
clean heart, they experience the incipient 
movement of some sinful feeling, such as 
hate, pride, or envy; and not knowing, 
perhaps, that it is impossible to discern in 
its incipiency whether a wicked feeling 
came from the soul itself or from a demo- 



86 Liglit 011 the Pathway of Holiness. 

mac influence ; and not being aware that it 
is difficult, in the early experience of sanc- 
tification, to analyze the feelings with suffi- 
cient accuracy to decide whether or not 
there is within the soul a slight affinity for 
sin; they give way to unbelief, cast away 
their confidence, and allow sin to capture 
them, and to rob them of the witness of 
the Spirit and their comfort. Had they 
been aware that similar disturbing move- 
ments among the sensibilities have been 
experienced by every being who has passed 
a probationary state in this world, or in 
any other had they remembered that 
those stirrings of the sensibilities that do 
not gain the consent of the will do not 
involve sin had they by faith held firmly 
their confidence, refused to surrender to 
unbelief, reckoned themselves dead unto 
sin, but alive unto God through Jesus 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 87 

Christ, and gone at once to the cross for a 
fresh application of the blood of the atone- 
ment they would not again have been 
brought into bondage to sinful feelings: 
they would soon have exulted in a brighter 
light, and the sweetness of an enriched 
experie ce. 

The deceiving, distressing influences of 
wicked feelings which were injected into 
the sanctified soul by evil spirits have been 
considered proof that the soul is still un- 
sanctified. This, opinion would naturally 
be entertained in the absence of the true 
theory of the introduction of moral evil 
into the universe, and of the true theory 
of sanctification. But if the sanctified man 
will carefully analyze his feelings in the 
light of sound doctrine, he will never write 
bitter things against himself because of the 
accusations of Satan, and because of heavi- 



88 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

ness through manifold temptations. As 
well might Eve have regarded herself as 
an unholy being "before her will had at all 
consented to disobey the commands of 
God because she felt a distressing move- 
ment among her sensibilities, desiring that 
which she could not have without a viola- 
tion of the divine law, as for the newly 
sanctified soul to conclude that it has been 
mistaken in the evidences of its sanctifica- 
tion, and that it is yet in an unsanctified 
state, because it experiences a movement 
more or less painful among its sensibilities, 
and the incipient existence of unholy feel- 
ings feelings unbidden and unwelcomed. 
The soul having experienced that degree 
of moral purity which we call sanctifica- 
tion in which all depravity is removed 
and a holy nature placed in its stead by 
the power of the Holy Spirit through the 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 89 

blood -of Jesus Christ its future progress 
consists of an increase in two distinct kinds 
of holiness. The first is a communicated 
holiness, and is the direct work of the Spirit. 
The second is a developed holiness, and is 
the result of obedience, education, and fol- 
lowing the example of Christ. Through all 
eternity these two causes will jointly secure 
the progress of the soul in moral purity. 
By transformation and assimilation it will 
be putting on the divine image more vivid- 
ly and completely. It would be a source 
of grief indeed to the Christian to feel 
that his Comforter, precious Friend, and 
glorious Sanctifier would never, after he 
reaches the heavenly world, work any more 
changes in his moral nature, nor impart to 
him any new degrees of holiness. Happily 
he may be confident that the Holy Spirit 
will communicate to him higher states of 



c,o Light on the Pathway of Holiness, 

purity forever, in order that he may be 
qualified to appreciate, enjoy, and illus- 
trate God's glorious holiness as it will be 
eternally unfolded before his enraptured 
vision. While in the body, the Christian 
seeks and receives these new degrees of 
imparted holiness through faith in the 
atonement : but beyond probation, since 
the great work of salvation will then be 
consummated, this increase of holiness will 
be bestowed directly by the Holy Spirit 
without reference to the atonement, just as 
new degrees of purity are imparted to the 
angels for ever and ever. 

But a moral being may be holy and yet 
lack a kind of excellence in strength and 
confirmation which God cannot directly 
bestow upon an accountable creature. If 
any soul does not get this strength and 
confirmation by the free exercise of its own 



LigJit on.tJie Pathway of Holiness. 91 

powers, it must remain destitute of them 
forever; and without them it can never 
be that which God designed it to become. 
They must be developed in practicing good 
and in resisting evil. They cannot be 
directly imparted consistently with a pur- 
pose to develop character and to prepare 

* 

the soul for the fruition of its reward. As 
soon as the sanctified soul begins a life of 
obedience, to discharge all its obligations 
and imitate the example- of Jesus Christ, 
its nature is growing more and more holy 
every day ; it is daily advancing in moral 
excellence. Some new degree of strength 
and confirmation is developed, and at the 
same time the Holy Spirit also imparts to 
it some new degree of communicated holi- 
ness. By the co-operation of these two 
agencies the soul will advance in holiness 
eternally. 



92 Light on the Pathivay of Holiness. 

But the great body of theologians teach, 
that after justification and its concomitant 
regeneration, faithfulness in practical du- 
ties, in imitation of the example of Christ, 
is all that is needed. They all admit that 
in regeneration the soul is by no means 
wholly purified ; that sinful tendencies re- 
main in it, and that the great work of sal- 
vation is, therefore, as yet, wrought but 
very imperfectly, very incompletely. And 
yet they teach that faithfulness in practical 
duties is all that is needed to complete in 
the soul the great work of Grospel salva- 
tion ! They wonderfully forget that the 
subjugation of depravity is not its destruc- 
tion; that education, imitation, obedience, 
and punctilious faithfulness in practical 
duties, are not atoning and saving ordi- 
nances. They forget that there is in them 
no cleansing efficacy, no recreating energy, 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 93 

and no power to transform the moral state 
of the soul from that of depravity to one 
of sinlessness. They forget that a soul is 
not prepared for its practical duties, for 
obedience to Grod, for the imitation of 
Christ, until it is cleansed from all sin 
and saved unto the uttermost. How can 

one exhibit his full measure of physical 
strength, or put forth the full energy and 

perform the full work of a man, while all 
his faculties are weakened by disease \ No 
more is a soul fitted for a holy life, to 
meet in full its solemn obligations, to imi- 
tate the example of Christ, while deprav- 
ity inheres and characterizes its whole 
essence. This inbred corruption will in- 
evitably prevent faithfulness in practical 
duties. Striking and convincing evidence 
of this is found in the appalling unfaith- 
fulness of the vast majority of professed 



94 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

Christians. Such, theologians forget that 
the processes and works they rely on 
education, faithfulness, the imitation of 
Christ cannot cleanse, cannot recreate the 
soul, nor implant any thing. All that they 
can do is to ^develop that which already 
exists in the soul that which was there 
originally, or has been implanted there. 
There is a wide distinction between sancti- 
fication and the excellence resulting from 

efforts to imitate the example of Christ. 
Let us look at pride; one of the sinful 
tempers that is acknowledged by all to 
remain in the soul after its regeneration. 
This temper has its origin in depravity. 
If the soul were holy, sinless, this feeling 
could have no existence in it. Take away 

depravity, and you take away this temper. 
In regeneration the feeling of humility is 
awakened by a consideration of the now 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 95 

changed moral relations, of past sins and 
uirworthiness. This feeling is the opposite 
and the antagonist of pride. Now let us 
suppose that the Christian begins to ex- 
ercise this feeling of humility and to re- 
press the feeling of pride. According to 

i. 

the natural law of cause and effect, humil- 
ity, by its exercise, increases in strength ; 
and pride, for lack of indulgence, accord- 
ing to the same law, decreases in strength 
at least relatively decreases. By these 
two efforts of the soul exercising humil- 
ity and repressing pride after hard fight- 
ing, humility obtains control over pride. 
Now let us suppose that this process con- 
tinues, and, if so, will not pride be finally 
worked completely out of the essence of 
the soul ? May not all evil tempers, by a 
similar process, or by multiplied processes, 
be eradicated from the soul ? Weakening 



96 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

a feeling, actually or relatively ; getting, by 
hard fighting, the upper hand of a sinful 
tendency or temper, or lessening its power 
to overcome the will, does not, cannot take 
out of the essence of the soul its depraved 
tendency to indulge that sinful temper. 
So long as the essence of the soul is un- 
holy, the tendency to indulge that wicked 
feeling or temper must also remain. This 
tendency can only be removed by the de- 
struction of depravity; by a thorough, 
complete change in the moral nature of the 
soul itself. One may by his own efforts 
lessen the manifestations or even the feel- 
ing of pride, but he cannot thereby remove 
from the soul's essence its depraved tend- 
ency to pride. If he could, then any 
other sinful temper, and all sinful tempers, 
might be worked out of the soul by a sim-, 
ilar process. Then the greater, deeper, and 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 97 

more difficult part of the salvation of a de- 
praved soul can be wrought out by human 
efforts and works. But would such a sal- 
vation be through the atoning and cleans- 
ing blood of Christ? or a salvation by 
the renewing power of the Holy Spirit? 
or a salvation by faith? Would it be a 
sanctification of the Spirit? Admit that 
the depraved state of a fallen soul may be 
changed by such a process, and the blood 
of Jesus may be wholly ignored in the 
theory of salvation. It is no longer essen- 
tial in order to cleanse, purify, and save.* 
But not so. Sinning against God incor- 
porates into the soul an alienation from 

* That noble body of divines who for three-fourths of 
a century have been charging Methodism with teaching 
Pelagiauism, are themselves most stalwart Pelagians: 
for they teach that the depravity remaining after regen- 
eration is removed, and the complete salvation from sin 
effected, through faithfulness in good (human) works ! 



98 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

him; and that alienation is so inveterate 
that nothing short .of divine power can 
reach and remove it. No amount of obe- 
dience in practical duties can cleanse 
recreate the soul in Christ Jesus. 

Education cannot implant poetic genius, 
nor inventive power, nor great talents of 
any kind. No more can it put its hand 
down into the soul and impart to it a holy 
nature. All that it can do is to develop 
existing powers. Even if the soul were 
stainless, and if there were no tempting, 
deceiving foes, education could not develop 
a soul, and conduct it safely through the 
ceaseless conflicts of its probation. It could 
not apprise the soul of subtle temptations ; 
of the approach of evil, nor energize it for 
sudden struggles with malignant enemies. 
When Satan enters a soul like a flood 
when he insidiously attacks its most vul- 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 99 

uerable point and when he holds up glit- 
tering proposals if it will "fall down and 
worship" him what can education do? 
If in such crises the soul be without those 
moral forces and spiritual convictions which 
come only through the baptism of the Holy 
Spirit, all the power of education would 
be utterly useless. There must be there- 
fore, after sanctification, new states of moral 
purity communicated to the soul directly 
by the Holy Spirit. 

But as the need of a second, distinct 
blessing, by which the essence of the soul 
is changed from a state of sinfulness to one 
of holiness implies that the justified are 
not yet ready for heaven, many summarily 
dismiss the doctrine of sanctification. 

Morally, an infant is unfit for heaven. 
But in consideration of the atonement, it 
must not be lost should it die in infancy. 



TOO Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

If not lost, it must be saved. If saved, it 
must be sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 
God therefore does sanctify the soul of an 
infant that he removes from earth. Infants 
that continue to live God does not thus 
sanctify, for the good reason that they are 
probationers, and must undergo its tests 
and discipline. True, he might arbitrarily 
give to those infants a nature holier than 
that of Gabriel. But should he do that, he 
would disqualify them for their trial, their 
triumph, and their reward. If a child 
lives, it must meet temptation ; it must 
have set before it life and death, blessing 
and cursing; and it must choose deliber- 
ately for itself. But, says one, Why not 
sanctify the child from or before the hour 
of its birth, and give it greater power to 
overcome temptation ? But the purer a 
being is, the stronger must the temptation 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 101 

* 
be by which it is assailed the severer 

must be the test in order to secure an 
adequate trial of its loyalty. Should God 
sanctify the- soul of a child before its ac- 
countability, it would become necessary to 
increase its trials, to intensify its tempta- 
tions. But the thought of working salva- 
tion in the souls of probationers without 
their consent is wholly discordant with the 
plan of redeeming grace, which proposes 
to accomplish its glorious ends in co-opera- 
tion with the preference, choice, and obe- 
dience of the human will. 

An infant, if it dies, is sanctified and 
goes to heaven. If it lives, it must strug- 
gle through conviction for sin, repentance, 
justification, regeneration, sanctification, 
and glorification, up to eternal life. Just 
so it is with a justified soul. If a justified 
man dies, he is saved; passes at once to 



IO2 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

heaven. The justified are partly prepared 
for heaven. Pardon of guilt, the favor of 
God, the adoption into the divine family, 
the change of all moral relations, power to 
meet all requirements and to war a good 
warfare, a good hope through grace, and 
the witness of the Spirit, are a part of the 
needed preparation. Those who are justi- 
fied possess all this. They are so far pre- 
pared for heaven that they cannot be sent 
to hell. But there is a great work of prep- 
aration that still needs to be accomplished. 
God is convicting them of the deep -de- 
pravity of their hearts showing them how 
that depravity must be removed urging 
them to cherish desires for holiness, to 
make full surrender for it, to strengthen 
their wills to choose it, and their faith to 
claim and embrace it. A soul so hunger- 
ing after righteousness will certainly soon 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 103 

be filled. But suppose such a person should 
be called to die before he experienced the 
full salvation ? God has seen in him the 
distinguished merit of struggling with de- 
graded affections, breaking from all cher- 
ished sins, and sundering his affections 
from unworthy objects. He has seen him 
contrite and penitent, deliberately choosing 
His service for life, renouncing every plea 
but mercy through the blood of the atone- 
ment, calmly trusting for all his wants in 
the merits of his Son, and heroically con- 
tending against all his spiritual enemies. 

Now in view of all this, God will most 
assuredly spread before his mind the charms 
of holiness, the process of full salvation, 
the motives for entire sanctification, and 
urgent reasons for its prompt embrace. 
The power of desire, of faith, and of will, 
in reference to this great blessing, may be 



IO4 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

greatly intensified, so that in the twinkling 
of an eye the great moral change may be 
wrought. God sees how that justified, re- 
generated soul has acted and resolved in 
the past, the self-denial he has undergone, 
and the loyalty he has evinced. These 
great considerations give to him a glorious 
claim on His divine sympathies. And as 
the opportunity of further demonstrating 
his loyalty is about to be forever removed, 
Grod can, without violating any principle 
of justice, do more for him under present 
circumstances than he could do if a longer 
probation were to be allowed to him. 
He might spread out before him motives 
to holiness more vividly, unfold to him its 
necessity more powerfully, and exhibit its 
charms more attractively. He might ener- 
gize his desire, will, and faith ; might break 
the power of temptation, and restrain the 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 105 

approach of the tempter. He might dis- 
robe the blinding attractions of sin of 
all their deceptions and fascinations. He 
might do all this to a degree he could not 
do if the period of his probation were to 
be extended. And also God could do this 

* 

without in the least interfering with the 
man's free moral agency. This is so because 
such working on the part of God would 
only be intensifying that which is already 
the full aim, purpose, and bent of the re- 
generated man's nature. It would only be 
hastening, anticipating, that consummation 
which he eventually would have reached, 
by efforts more protracted and strides less 
rapid, in a longer probation. Upon those 
whose probation is prolonged, God cannot 
come in this extraordinary manner and cut 
the work short in righteousness. Their 
wills must be called into strenuous but 



io6 LigJit on the Pathway of Holiness. 

I 

natural and normal exercise. No illumina- 
tion, or incitement, or afflatus must be al- 
lowed that will in the least constrain or 
restrain their volitions with reference to 
entire holiness. The will must contest 
every step of progress, not only from a 
state of transgression, through conviction 
up to justification, but also from justifica- 
tion up to sanctification and glorification. 

But we have seen in the former part of 
this discussion that the first sin that gained 
the consent of the will of an unfallen soul 
immediately passed down into the essence 
of that soul, changed all its moral rela- 
tions, and changed the character of that 
essence from holiness to unholiness. So 
soon as Eve sinned, her soul became a 
fallen, unholy, lost soul. The derange- 
ment thus introduced into it neither she 
nor any finite power could ever rectify. 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 107 

Hence, naturally, the important question 
arises with reference to this point: How 
is it with a soul sanctified by the Holy 
Spirit through the all-cleansing blood of 
the Redeemer? For example: suppose 
Brother A. now enjoys the blessing of 
sanctification, but should to-morrow, under 
powerful temptations, fall into some will- 
fill sin ; does that sin change the character 
of the essence of his soul, so that it shall 
lose its holiness and become unholy ? Does 
that sin introduce there sinful tendencies, 
affinities for vice as vice? If a justified 
man sin, he has an Advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous ; and in 
deep penitence and earnest faith, he looks 
immediately to the merit and pleadings of 
that Advocate, that he would prevent the 
legitimate effects of that willful sin in rob- 
bing him of his state of justification. And 



io8 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

the blood of Jesus intercepts and turns 
away tlie influence of that sin before it 
can change his moral relations, or damage 
either his justification or regeneration. 
And so, if a sanctified man sin, he too hath 
an Advocate with the Father, and he flies 
to the blood of atonement in humble reli- 
ance on its merit. That blood intercepts 
the influence of that sin before it can pass 
down into the essence of his soul and 
change its state of purity to a state of 
siufulness ; before it can implant sinful 
tendencies. 

This is one of the most comforting and 
important discoveries which I think I have 
made in the process of the great work of 
sanctification. The parent clings sympa- 
thiziugly to a child that has yielded in the 
moment of sudden and strong temptation. 
His pity, mercy, and tenderness, are then 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 109 

especially awakened. He cannot, for a mo- 
ment, consent that bis offspring shall be 
given up. He still owns, claims, and un- 
dertakes for him. In like manner God 
clings to his spiritual child. He "bears 
long with him, and is unwilling to sur- 
render the glory of his inheritance in him. 
Notwithstanding his many imperfections, 
he exclaims, "How shall I give thee up? 
how shall I deliver thee \ how shall I 
make thee as Admah? how shall I set 
thee as Zeboim? Mine heart is turned 
within me." And all this he can do with- 
out in the least conniving at sin. For the 
blood of atonement intercepts the conse- 
quences and virus of sin on their way, 
traveling fast down to the substratum of 
the soul. That precious blood preserves 
the struggling, regenerated, but imperfect 
Christian in the family and favor of God. 



1 10 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

And so also is it with the man who has 
experienced the profound change of sancti- 
fication. In that high state of grace he 
may err, may often fail to keep in full per- 
fection all the requisitions of the divine 
law and yet by a prompt application to 
the blood of atonement, through confes- 
sion, penitence, and faith, may preserve 
uninterruptedly his state of sanctificatiou. 
All his sins of infirmity, all his needless 
failures to satisfy the perfection of the 
moral law, all his occasional and inad- 
vertent listening and yielding to the most 
subtle temptations and deceptions, need 
not for one instant change the state and 
character of the essence of his soul. For if 
a sanctified man sin, he hath an Advocate 
with the Father, Jesus Christ the right- 
eous; and the legitimate effects and con- 
sequences of that sin are all prevented by 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 1 1 1 

the intervention of atoning blood, if he 
make prompt and earnest application there- 
unto. But for that, blood, the first viola- 
tion of the clivine law would change the 
character of the essence of his soul from 
being a holy essence to being an unholy 
essence. A perpetual use of the blood of 
atonement is a concomitant of the state of 
sanctification. There are many Christians 
who have really experienced the great 
change of the full' salvation, but who have 
been driven back from their faith, their 
power, and their witness, by a perception 
of the discrepancy between their lives and 
the superlative requirements of that law 
that is ft holy, just, and good." This dis- 
cernment has depressed them into doubt, 
distrust, satanic deceptions, and unutterable 
distress. But, Christian warrior, take fresh 
courage ! Do not thus be robbed of your 



112 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

grace ! Do not consent to be driven back 
from your nigh vantage ground into dark- 
ness and peril ! Though you. should err in 
many things, and in all things come short 
of the full glory of God, still, standing in 
the fountain opened for sin and unclean- 
ness, you have nothing to fear, nothing to 
surrender. Cast not away your confidence. 
Hold fast whereunto you have attained. 
Give no place to doubt or to Satan, no, 
not for an instant. Beckon yourself dead 
unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus 
Christ. So doing you will retain all your 
spiritual possessions and triumphs ; keep in 
unclouded splendor the glorious witness of 
the Holy Spirit, bearing witness with your 
spirit, to your entire sanctification. So do- 
ing you will ever be found walking in the 
gemmed pathway leading to the shining 
gates of light, beyond which you will so 



Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 113 

soon stand enraptured amid ineffable and 
imperishable glories. A sinless spirit, while 
passing its period of probation, is liable to 
fall and to be ruined forever. A fallen 
soul, now sanctified through redeeming 
mercy, is a hundredfold more liable to the . 
same dreadful destiny. But how incom- 
parably greater is the danger of the justi- 
fied man who halts in the state and period 
of regeneration, and does not press forward 
to the full salvation, to fall redemption in 
the blood of the Lamb. He is in immi- 
nent danger of yielding, sinning, falling, 
and rising "to shame and everlasting con- 
tempt." 

And 'now, having given what seems to 
me to be a satisfactory solution of this dif- 
ficult subject, I commend my discourse to 
the all-sufficient blessing of that gracious 
Redeemer whose blood now saves and pre- 



1 14 Light on the Pathway of Holiness. 

serves me. If I have spoken the truth as 
it is in Jesus, I trust he will bless it to the 
salvation of many, and to the general good 
of his Church universal. But if. notwith- 
standing my well-meant efforts, I have in 
any wise erred, I pray that he will coun- 
teract my errors by his preventing grace, 
and that, for the good of his people, and 
the glory of his holy name, he will send 
some teacher after me who will discrimi- 



nate my erroneous teaching, unfold the 
true process and science of salvation, and 
of holy living, and lead his spiritual Israel, 
of whatever name, up to a serener theology, 
and to a more constant and perfect expe- 
rience of redeeming grace. 

THE END. 



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